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54 tagged events, 28 books, 2 journals found.

Tagged events

April 2015

Call for Papers! Please submit your manuscripts/case studies in any of the areas/topics indicated below: Topics! ...


May 2015

MAY 20
The 3 Day immersive event to enable you to capitalize on the mobile commerce revolution The Proximity Marketing Bluep...

Bangkok ,

MAY 22
Call for Papers! Please submit your manuscripts/case studies in any of the areas/topics indicated below: Topics! ...

United Arab Emirates

July 2015

JUL 17
Dear & Esteemed Colleagues, Warm greetings! It gives us immense pleasure to invite you to the Third Asia Pacific Conf...


October 2015

OCT 16
Dear Colleagues, Warm greetings! It gives us great pleasure to extend a warm welcome to you to the Third Middle East C...

United Arab Emirates

December 2015

DEC 14
As we move forward into the next millennium, the real challenge for many enterprises will be navigating the complexities...


January 2016

2016 5th International Conference on Economics Marketing and Management- ICEMM 2016 January 9-10, 2016 Penang, Malaysi...


February 2016

TIIKM’s 2nd Annual International Conference on Services Marketing 2016 (ICOSM-2016) with a theme of “Service Ubiquit...

Chiang Mai,

April 2016

APR 15
Why Attend: The UK Freelance Intensive Conference is a 1 day comprehensive event designed to deliver powerful career an...

United Kingdom

May 2016

MAY 13
Dear & Esteemed Colleagues, Warm greetings! Global Business Research Journals (GBRJ) & SDMIMD, Mysore, Karnataka State, ...

United Arab Emirates

MAY 16
18 Workshops | 2 Days | 0 Distractions Experts, fresh thinking, hands-on instruction, the opportunity to discuss your...

Charlotte, North Carolina,
United States

MAY 24
The Online & Digital Grocery Summit 2016 will bring together the leading Retailers and FMCG brands to understand the key...

United Kingdom

MAY 26
4th Annual International Conference on Marketing (ICOM-2016) will be held during February 26th & 27th 2016 in Thailand ...


June 2016

JUN 23
​The AMA's annual Marketing and Public Policy Conference offers a broad range of sessions highlighting the intersectio...

San Luis Obispo, CA,
United States

JUN 26
This is the 27th year of the AMA's Advanced Research Techniques (ART) Forum, where academics and practitioners discuss t...

Boston, Massachusetts,
United States

JUN 30
The Online & Digital Consumer Electronics Summit UK 2016 will bring together the leading retailers and consumer electron...

United Kingdom

July 2016

May we invite you to be part of the upcoming conference, please? In addition to paper presentations and discussions, the...


Streamline and automate marketing tasks related to email, social media and other website actions to drive measurable bot...

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
United States

JUL 11
One-of-a-kind perspectives, expert-led sessions and an exceptional line-up of speakers will be featured throughout this ...

Washington, D.C.,
United States

August 2016

These ground breaking sessions will bring together the best of the best in marketing thought leadership to collaborate a...

United States

December 2016

DEC 12
As we move forward into the next millennium, the real challenge for many enterprises will be navigating the complexities...


DEC 14
28th ABMC event ICMBM-2016 in Dubai, UAE provides a platform to meet 100+ professionals from 30+ countries, and enables ...

Dubai, UAE, United Arab Emirates,
United Arab Emirates

April 2017

APR 28
Please submit your research abstracts/full papers/case studies at the conference in any of the areas in marketing, touri...

New York,
United States

September 2017

Welcome to the 2nd International Symposium on Globalization and Media in Asia (SYGMA 2017). This is an international, pe...


April 2018

APR 13
Dear & Esteemed Colleagues Greetings! Hearty welcome to the upcoming international conference on Marketing and Touris...

New York, New York,
United States

APR 24
OVERVIEW The use of native advertising, endorsements and influencers has been standard marketing practice for many bran...

United States

July 2018

Dear & Esteemed Colleagues, Greetings! Greetings! We are extremely pleased to welcome you to our upcoming Internat...


October 2018

Dear & Esteemed Colleagues, Greetings! It gives us immense pleasure to extend a warm welcome to you to the upcomin...

Dubai, UAE, United Arab Emirates,
United Arab Emirates

December 2018

The purpose of the ICME 2018 is to promote discussion and interaction among academics, researchers and professionals in ...


February 2019

FEB 15
An exclusively limited availability one day MiFID II regulatory compliance training course that provides unique and comp...

United Kingdom

FEB 15
Please submit your manuscripts/case studies in any of the areas/topics indicated below: Topics! Tourism & Hospitality!...


May 2019

MAY 24
Please submit your manuscripts/case studies/ poters in any of the areas/topics indicated below: Topics! Tourism & Hosp...

Las Vegas, Nevada,
United States

June 2019

DigiMarCon South 2019 is your chance to ... - Hear from some of the most audacious and thought provoking speakers in...

United States

Please submit your manuscripts/case studies in any of the areas/topics indicated below: Topics! Tourism & Hospitality!...


July 2019

Are you an Entrepreneur or Business Owner and need to get away and take a break? Ready to recharge, rejuvenate in new su...

Cape Canaveral,
United States

If you want to be successful in digital marketing, you can’t miss the 5th annual DigiMarCon Caribbean 2019! DigiMar...

Cape Canaveral,
United States

August 2019

This upcoming conference in Singapore provides opportunity for academicians, researchers, industry experts and scholars ...


AUG 28
DigiMarCon Australia 2019 is your chance to ... - Hear from some of the most audacious and thought provoking speakers ...


September 2019

SEP 12
DigiMarCon Europe 2019 is your chance to ... - Hear from some of the most audacious and thought provoking speakers in ...


SEP 18
DigiMarCon Asia Pacific 2019 is your chance to ... - Hear from some of the most audacious and thought provoking speake...


October 2019

OCT 22
Where Business, Tech and Innovation Collide in Dubai! TECHSPO Dubai 2019 is a two-day technology expo taking place Oc...

United Arab Emirates

OCT 22
DigiMarCon Middle East 2019 is your chance to ... - Hear from some of the most audacious and thought provoking speaker...

Dubai, UAE, United Arab Emirates,
United Arab Emirates

November 2019

NOV 19
"DigiMarCon Latin America 2019 is your chance to ... - Hear from some of the most audacious and thought provoking spea...

United States

May 2020

DigiMarCon East 2020 is your chance to ... - Hear from some of the most audacious and thought provoking speakers in th...

New York, New York,
United States

MAY 25
WebSpero Solutions is organizing a webinar this May 25, 2020, 10:00 AM in Pacific Time (US and Canada). The subject of o...

United States

July 2020

JUL 31
GBRJ aims at bringing together academicians, researchers, industry experts and scholars from different parts of the worl...


April 2021

APR 28
Oklahoma City Digital Marketing, Media and Advertising Conference is your chance to ... – Hear from some of the mos...

APR 28
Louisville Digital Marketing, Media and Advertising Conference is your chance to ... – Hear from some of the most a...

United States

June 2023

JUN 27
Join hundreds of your fellow marketers in Denver for the upcoming Digital Summit on June 27-28! Experience two days of i...

United States

July 2023

DigiMarCon America 2023 is your chance to ... – Hear from some of the most audacious and thought provoking speakers i...

United States

August 2023

AUG 16
Join hundreds of your fellow marketers in Minneapolis for the upcoming Digital Summit on August 16-17! Experience two da...

United States

October 2023

DigiMarCon India 2023 is your chance to ... – Hear from some of the most audacious and thought-provoking speakers in ...


February 2024

FEB 26
Publication: The excellent accepted and registered full papers of CEBMM 2024 will be recommended to be published into J...


March 2024

MAR 18
Publication Information: Submissions will be reviewed by the conference committees and accepted papers will be publishe...



by Wilson F. Ozuem


There has been a lot of interest among marketing practitioners and researchers in the concept of marketing communications as related to computer-mediated marketing environments as a result of the commercialization of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a marketing and communication medium. Despite growing interest, there is a dearth of research on the processual nature of communication between marketers and consumers. The overall aim of this study, therefore, is to expand our understanding of marketing communication within the computer-mediated marketing environments. This understanding is achieved in the thesis by incorporating ideas from traditional marketing communication models those based on a one-way, general outbound, linear model in which marketers deliver communication to customers and pr...

by Wilson Ozuem, Elena Patten and Yllka Azemi


This book provides a contemporary theoretical insight into the fashion and luxury industry, addressing potential gray areas within the literature. The authors analyze the luxury and fashion industry using multiple perspectives, allowing for a critical comprehensive overview of the phenomenon across diverse streams. The book provides insight into fashion and luxury retailing in the context of both online and brick and mortar retailers based on a variety of market scenarios. It deciphers the rationale of customer behavioral and decision making in online and offline luxury and fashion purchasing contexts. It provides an overview of the challenges that the industry faces with the advent of the evolving omni-channel environment.The multiple theoretical and practical nuances of the fashion and l...

Electronic Marketing

Advantages and Disadvantages

by Najib C. Fatayerji


There is no doubt that electronic marketing has contributed positively in the life of modern societies, mainly the consuming societies. It allowed purchasing of materials cheaply without any limit, and without any restrictions. It also gave the chance to make a free selection and comparison between the prices of goods at the electronic department stores throughout the Internet. All such facilities are given to the consumers in a very short time without causing them to leave their office or home. In addition, the Electronic Marketing has exterminated the monopoly of goods and materials, all such acts of course are for the consumer's benefit.However, in addition to such advantages there are many disadvantages of such type of marketing; the Electronic Marketing has deleted the privacy of the ...

by Oluwole O. Iyiola


The tobacco industry has always shown much interest in marketing their line of products and have been very successful in portraying smoking as a socially acceptable behavior to billions of people throughout the world. Studies have shown in developed nations that tobacco marketing leads to the onset of smoking among adolescents; in Nigeria, no such study has been done. The purpose of this research is to assess the potential influence of tobacco marketing on tobacco consumption among rural and urban residents in the southwestern region of Nigeria. The survey was designed by the researcher: thirty-six items, self-administered by paper instrument using a cross-sectional design, were distributed to six hundred people in southwestern Nigeria. The study involved 436 males (72.7%) and 164 females...

Network Marketing

How To Play By Your Own Rules and Win

by Charles F. Amick


Between six and seven million people discover network marketing every year. With the promise of a huge monthly income, they trade their hopes and dreams for a chance to sell friends and family their new hopes and dreams. Most network marketers will not be proud of the results. They'll arrive where they started with less money and even less self-respect. Network Marketing: How To Play By Your Own Rules and Win offers an alternative to the traditional plan: an alternative that encourages you to follow your own path to success. Together, we'll start with your first day of network marketing and journey through to your prospecting campaigns. We'll discuss what really works for you and why, and we'll identify warning signs you should watch for. We'll even confront topics that "experts" are af...

by Gary Jon Springer


Scope of Study: The author of this dissertation surveyed psychologists in the United States to determine the forms of technology that are currently being utilized in their practice. Through the use of a survey, the study intends to show that technological applications are currently being underutilized in the counseling profession and there exists great potential for marketing new technology to counselors. The new technological ideas that were explored in the study included the use of computer aided diagnostic techniques, video-counseling and the use of a voice stress analyzer.Findings and Conclusions: The study determined that technology is being underutilized by the counseling profession. Marketing new technology to counselors will require greater effort and research due to the resista...

Advertising vs. Marketing

The Ethical Challenge

by Ileen E. Kelly


Various business models have been presented each reflecting their strengths and weaknesses. The first model demonstrates consumer purchase behavior. The second model demonstrates marketing strategies. The third model demonstrates the use of various advertising vehicles and the last model demonstrates the human aspect that combines salesmanship and leadership with ethical business codes of conduct. This researcher found a multitude of articles, books, journals, and websites on each topic and recognized the need for these models to merge. Based on the readings, you will observe the pros and cons which lead to the end results. Results from which decisions are judged as ethical including the decision making that requires the means to be ethical as well.

by Renée Kennedy & Terry Kent


Search engine optimization requires strong organization. Organization will put you above your competition. This book teaches you a successful optimization process. Some highlights are: - How search engines work - Variables that will affect search engine ranks - Link popularity - Five samples of pages that work in the engines - How to submit - How to analyze your progress - A troubleshooting section - A great glossary of terms

by Terence D. Rafferty

03/26/1999 is a multimedia publishing company which was founded in 1998 to meet a consumer demand for education in the field of transesophageal echocardiography. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is an ultrasound diagnostic technique for obtaining real-time images of the heart and great vessels from a transducer positioned within the esophagus. This technique receives widespread application in the perioperative care of critically ill patients. The company has two divisions, namely, a research unit based in New Haven, Connecticut, and a production and distribution unit based in Silver Spring, Maryland. The company product consists of 6 hours of videotape and a book which describe TEE techniques. The target market consists of physicians who wish to develop or maintain exp...

Comparative Analysis and Benchmarking

Corporate Strategy Analysis of Four International Pharmaceutical Companies

by Hung-hsin Chen


This research of corporate strategy analysis implements comparative analysis and benchmarking to analyse and examine the corporate strategy of the pharmaceutical sectors of 4 international pharmaceutical companies. Most existing studies of pharmaceutical industry have been limited to some specific fields such as the R&D ability, new products launch time, acquisitions, and alliances. Little has been known about the analysis of corporate strategy and comparison of pharmaceutical industry by both internal and external factors. On the other hand, the comparative strategy and benchmarking have been frequently applied in analysing the corporate strategy mostly in public service industries, ...

Barbie - The Icon, The Image, The Ideal

An Analytical Interpretation of the Barbie Doll in Popular Culture

by Kristin N. Weissman


This thesis is a cultural analysis of: a) women's idealized perception of the Barbie doll, and b) the construction of the Barbie doll image through marketing. In addition, both areas will provide a concentrated emphasis on "respectability." The analysis will be focused on Barbie's creation in 1959, and on the current practices of representations in 1999. The thesis is divided into two phases. Phase one illustrates the interpretation of how women perceive Barbie, and how they see themselves in her likeness. It further explores the determined impression of the doll as "respectable." Phase two examines the way that Barbie is presented in the market and the techniques used to formulate the intended representations of the doll. The analysis of the thesis focuses solely on her introduction ...

Create Web Content that Sells!

Wow your market with writing strategies, search engine hints, and graphic tips that work

by Renee Kennedy


Are you ready to build an effective Web site that sells? One that brings in serious prospects? Then Create Web Content That Sells! is for you. It's a tutorial about writing effectively for Web visitors, creating a useable site structure, getting a marketing mind-set, and choosing practical graphics for your Web site.Whether your site sells wrenches to left-handed mechanics, offers landscaping services, or strives to cultivate loyalty in the hearts of your existing customers, the basic tenet of great Web content is universal: speak to your audience. And Create Web Content That Sells! shows you how to get down and dirty, one-to-one, with your audience, through writing, structure, and graphics.Small business people need every edge they can get, so we designed our marketing section to fit ...

by Mamarinta P. Mababaya


This study investigated whether known economic and international business theories available in the literature are meaningful enough to explain the nature, existence and role of multinational companies (MNCs) in the Middle East, particularly Saudi Arabia. Two sets of questionnaires were distributed in major cities of Saudi Arabia -- one set for 100 multinational managers and another for 280 multinational customers. 234 questionnaires were collected -- 45 from multinational managers and 189 from customers. This represents a total response rate of 62 percent, which is adequate for this study.The empirical results, supported with comprehensive secondary data, confirmed virtually all of the research hypotheses. The study found that joint ventures are the dominant form of multinational business...

by Alex Buchner


Context Mediation is a field of research that is concerned with the interchange of information across different environments, which provides a vehicle to bridge semantic gaps among disparate entities. Knowledge Discovery is concerned with the extraction of actionable information from large databases. A challenge that has received relatively little attention is knowledge discovery in a highly disparate environment, that is multiple heterogeneous data sources, multiple domain knowledge sources and multiple knowledge patterns. This thesis tackles the problem of semantic interoperability among data, domain knowledge and knowledge patterns in a knowledge discovery process using context mediation. Context fundamentals are introduced, which encompasses the concepts of context identity, sem...

Geoparks and Geotourism

New Approaches to Sustainability for the 21st Century

by Neda Torabi Farsani, Celeste Coelho, Carlos Costa, & Carlos Neto de Carvalho (editors)


This book aims to identify geotourism and geoparks as gateways to socio-cultural, socio-environmental, and socio-economic sustainability in rural areas. At present, geotourism is a new movement helping travelers to increase their knowledge about natural resources, the cultural identities of host communities, and ways of preserving them. The ‘emerging tourism’ niche of geotourism is still at an early stage of commercial development in most countries, and geoparks as a sustainable development model for protected areas are pioneers in the development of geotourism marketing. The establishment of the European Geoparks Network and the Global Geoparks Network are positive steps toward the preservation and presentation of geo-heritage as a new tourist attraction. Geoparks and Geotourism prov...

The Low-Fat Lie

Rise of Obesity, Diabetes and Inflammation

by Glen D. Lawrence


The advice to consume less fat "especially saturated fat" had a profound, adverse impact on public health. Although the percentage of fat in the American diet decreased, the percentage of carbohydrate and total calories increased, and sugar consumption skyrocketed. In The Low-Fat Lie: Rise of Obesity, Diabetes, and Inflammation, Dr. Glen Lawrence describes how the false condemnation of saturated fat arose from a misunderstanding of how our bodies regulate cholesterol. He explains how replacing saturated fat with vegetable oil stoked the fires of inflammation to cause pain and suffering, in addition to aggravating cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. The mainstream health and nutrition authorities have long cautioned against consuming too much sugar because of the risk of tooth decay. Howe...

The Role of the Pharmacist in Patient Care

Achieving High Quality, Cost-Effective and Accessible Healthcare Through a Team-Based, Patient-Centered Approach

by Abdul Kader Mohiuddin


The goal of a high quality, cost-effective and accessible health care for patients is achieved through constructing a team-based and patient-centered health care delivery system. The expanded role of pharmacists uplifts them to patient care from dispensing and manufacturing or marketing of drugs. Along with doctors and allied health professionals, pharmacists are increasingly recognized as an integral part of the patient care team. Furthermore, colleges of pharmacy need to revise and up-date their curricula to accommodate the progressively increasing development in the pharmaceutical education and the evolving new roles of practicing pharmacists in patient care settings. This book focuses on the expanded role of the pharmacists in total patient care including prescribing, dispensing, compo...

by Gail Ferreira


Global usage of the World Wide Web continues to increase exponentially, yet many corporate Web sites are misperceived by non-English-speaking audiences. Diverse communities of global consumers purchase products on the World Wide Web based on a positive image of the product as reflected in the Web site content, which includes text, images, and icons. However, corporate leaders may not have an awareness of the common elements present in successful global Web sites as comprehended by different cultures. This qualitative, phenomenological data analysis used a Web-based survey to explore the perceptions and feelings of a purposive sample of participants regarding the content of global World Wide Web sites. Each participant in the study spoke English or a combination of English and Spanish and e...

by Gbadebo Olusegun Odularu


This study attempts to examine the impact of a trade decontrol policy on food output within the Nigerian macroeconomic context. In other words, the study relates trade liberalization to the national food security situation between 1970 and 2000, by employing descriptive statistics and error correction model (ECM) as the research methodologies. Regional and multilateral trade agreements seem to reduce barriers to the flow of commodities across borders, thus fostering a more efficient allocation of scarce resources as well as raising gross output with positive implications for food security at various levels. Though the trend analyses revealed considerable fluctuations, there existed greater improvements during the trade decontrol era than during the period of trade restriction. The produc...

The Fundraising Guide for Chairpersons

Seven Steps to Coordinating Non-Profit and Church Organizations Fund-Raising Events--Including Dinners, Dances, Raffles, Bazaars, Field Days and Lawn Fetes!

by Ron Urbanczyk


When you run a fund-raising event, there is always a risk that you and your organization could lose rather than make money. In most cases, proper planning and organizing can minimize the risk. In this book, The Chairpersons Guide, Seven Steps to Coordinating Non-Profit and Church Organizations Fund-Raising Events, the author guides the reader through all the critical phases of running a fund-raising event which includes Planning, Organizing, Developing, Marketing, Running, Measuring and Assessing. If you have taken on the challenge and responsibilities of chairing an event, this book is a must read! Developed from over 30 years of personal fund-raising experiences and utilizing common industrial engineering tools used in industry, Ron Urbanczyk guides you through the fundraising pro...

Global Silk Industry

A Complete Source Book

by Rajat K. Datta & Mahesh Nanavaty


The popularity of silk is more confined to super-rich or haute couture; silk is now an affordable luxury for the middle class in Europe and USA, and continues to hold its way in Asia as traditional ceremonial wear. The present source book traces recent global status of silk country wise and describes in depth the sericulture practices followed in both in temperate and tropic regions of the world, as also silk processing, and marketing of raw silk, finished silk and ready-to-wear including high fashion couture creations of Italy, France and Switzerland. The book, therefore, attempts to fill a void in the current information available in English on the world status of sericulture and silk. We presume it would definitely interest scientist, technologists and students connected with the textil...

Diet, Health, and Prevention

A Revolution in Progress against Chronic Diseases of Lifestyle

by Norman J. Temple, Ph.D.


Chronic diseases of lifestyle (CDL), such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer, are the dominant family of diseases in the USA and across the Western world. These diseases are closely related to an unhealthy lifestyle. The book explores this family of diseases, their causes, and most especially the role of diet. This information will enable the reader to achieve a healthy lifestyle and prevent these diseases. But the book goes further: it also explores the big picture of how improved health can be achieved across the population. This requires encouraging people to eat a healthier diet. Towards that goal various other important topics are also examined including the dangers posed by the food industry and the great potential of government policy such as: * Food labels * Health promotio...

Another Boom for Amazonia?

Examining the Socioeconomic and Environmental Implications of the New Camu Camu Industry in Peru

by James W. Penn, Jr.


This study examines the socioeconomic and environmental implications of the new camu camu industry in Peru. Camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) is a small tree native to wetlands of the Amazon basin. It is especially abundant in Peruvian Amazonia. The high vitamin-C content of the fruit has generated interest in exporting camu camu products from Amazonia to more-developed countries. The government of Peru has been actively promoting this new extractive industry, as well as the planting of camu camu in rural areas. Non-governmental development organizations and private industry are now actively involved with camu camu projects and enterprises. In Peru, enthusiasm for this native species is high, because camu camu is expected to provide a much-needed and sustainable economic boost for the region. Ho...

Being Autistic is Not a Behavior Problem

A Critique of Applied Behavior Analysis in the Era of Neurodiversity

by Daniel B. LeGoff, PhD


Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has become a widely used form of therapy for autistic children without its theories and methods being well understood. This critical analysis of the theories and research on which ABA bases its claim to being an evidence-based treatment is a must-read for everyone who has a stake in the lives of autistic individuals. This book reviews the literature which shows that ABA is not based on scientific research, and that practitioners of ABA are not required to be trained in child psychology, pediatrics, child development, education, family therapy, language development, or scientific research. ABA is not based on any form of developmental science, but primarily on the works of B.F. Skinner whose ideas were first published over seventy years ago. This philosoph...

The Death of Science

A Companion Study to Martín López Corredoira's "The Twilight of the Scientific Age"

by Andrew Holster


Modern science is in unprecedented crisis. It is a crisis at many levels, continuous with larger crises of modern society. It is a crisis for the vocation of the scientist working within the modern institutionalised structures of science. It is a crisis for our capacity to use science benevolently to help solve larger material, organisational, and ultimately political problems of the modern era. And it is a crisis for philosophy, for the role of natural science to help inform our world-view. The Death of Science is an account of deeper causes of this malaise. It starts by taking up the reins of López Corredoira's (2013) The Twilight of the Scientific Age, a recent critique that concludes with modern science on its death bed. It dissects key themes in detail, illustrated in the same frank ...

by Ron Laurence McDowall


The management of hazardous and toxic waste projects in Asia (especially that related to intractable chemicals) has had a less than acceptable performance profile during the last 20 years. There have been numerous documented cases of management and systems failures in intractable chemical recovery projects, despite the establishment of global conventions designed to avoid such problems. A research programme was undertaken with the aim of producing a management model for companies to help prevent such failures in the future. The research began in the field with an exploration of management culture and its impact on project management. This involved multiple visits to five Asian countries and interviewing people involved in intractable waste management at both strategic and operational ...

Risk Factors and Business Models

Understanding the Five Forces of Entrepreneurial Risk and the Causes of Business Failure

by D. Anthony Miles


One of the primary concerns in a small business is the problem of risk. Many who begin the start-up process terminate it in less than one year. Of those that survive, many are unable to achieve sustained growth and profits. Small-to-medium business enterprises (SME) have a 50% to 90% chance of failure within the first five years. While there are measures of personal risk behavior of entrepreneurs, the literature contains no measure of risk orientation for the enterprise. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a researcher-designed instrument to measure the critical forces of business risk. The 37-item Entrepreneurial Risk Assessment Scale (ERAS) was developed from key theoretical concepts grounded in economics, marketing, management, finance, and entrepreneurship literatu...

by Rossano V. Gerald


The research problem focused on Panama's low-income consumers' decision making process when shopping for consumer-products. The purpose of the research was to determine Panama's low-income consumers' consumption values, preferences, and loyalty towards a particular brand over another. The qualitative research method was employed in this study, and the data collection process consisted of observation and in-depth interview documents that were organized and categorized. The results of the study found that Panama's low-income consumers' brand preferences were widely varied and brand-loyalty behavior was influenced by consumers' knowledge, perceptions, and commitment towards a particular product and service provider. Recommendation for further study addressed the marketing strategy that could ...