Search: "chemical" Filter:"chemical"

95 tagged events, 30 books found.


by Pierre Infelta & Michael Graetzel


In this volume (volume 1), the tools necessary to study and understand systems in which chemical reactions can take place are developed. The variables of reaction are the keys to this understanding. Criteria for chemical equilibrium are established. It is shown how chemical reactions can provide work as, for example, in batteries. For complex systems, the number of independent reactions and their nature have to be determined systematically. The effect of external factors on chemical equilibria is analyzed and illustrated. The formalism necessary to study ideal and real solutions is provided. The various standard states in use and the corresponding activity coefficients are clearly defined. In volume 2, the tools necessary to study and understand systems in which chemical reactions can t...

by Michael Graetzel & Pierre Infelta


In this volume, the tools necessary to study and understand systems in which chemical reactions can take place are developed. The variables of reaction are the keys to this understanding. Criteria for chemical equilibrium are established. It is shown how chemical reactions can provide work as, for example, in batteries. For complex systems, the number of independent reactions and their nature have to be determined systematically. The effect of external factors on chemical equilibria is analyzed and illustrated. The formalism necessary to study ideal and real solutions is provided. The various standard states in use and the corresponding activity coefficients are clearly defined. The statistical aspect of thermodynamics is best understood once students are familiar with the rest of the boo...

by Mihai V. Putz


In the limits of the density functional theory there are introduced and deduced fundamental chemical descriptors as the chemical action concept, the chemical field, new electronegativity, rate reaction and chemical hardness formulations, the reduced total energy and the partial Hohenberg-Kohn functionals. For electronic density computations the quantum statistic picture of the path integral Feynman-Kleinert formalism is employed to its markovian approximation, providing the framework in which the majority of the chemical reactions and the reactivity of the electronic systems can be treated together with the internal and environmental couplings. Evaluation, representation and interpretation of the present analyzed chemical indices are performed for a prototype many-electronic system such th...

by Wolfgang Hummel


The Nagra/PSI Chemical Thermodynamic Data Base 01/01 is an encyclopedia of thermodynamic data recommended for environmental studies. The data base focuses on elements commonly found as major solutes in natural waters, and on actinides and fission products relevant for radioactive waste disposal projects. It is the official chemical thermodynamic data base used in Swiss radioactive waste disposal projects. The detailed discussion of every number recommended in this encyclopedia is the result of a multi man-year project of the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), a Swiss National Lab. The five authors of this work have many years of experience in research, data base development and the application of thermodynamic data in environmental studies. The data included for many elements are based on the...

Caveman Chemistry

28 Projects, from the Creation of Fire to the Production of Plastics

by Kevin M. Dunn


Learn not only how to recreate the chemicals that changed history, but the history behind the chemicals. A five star college level teaching aid! Half a million years ago our ancestors learned to make fire from scratch. They crafted intricate tools from stone and brewed mind-altering elixirs from honey. Their descendants transformed clay into pottery, wool into clothing, and ashes into cleansers. In ceramic crucibles they won metal from rock, the metals lead to colored glazes and glass. Buildings of brick and mortar enshrined books of parchment and paper. Kings and queens demanded ever more colorful clothing and accessories in order to out-class clod-hoppers and call-girls. Kingdoms rose and fell by the power of saltpeter, sulfur, and charcoal. And the demands of everyday folk for glass ...

by Pierre P. Infelta


The fundamental aspects of classical thermodynamics are presented in a simple compact way. The equations derived are illustrated by numerous (111) examples, often direct application of the relations just obtained. The (four) laws of thermodynamics are presented and illustrated. The need to define thermodynamic temperature, the meaning of auxiliary thermodynamic functions, the origin, usefulness and use of partial molar quantities are all examined. Gaseous systems, phase equilibria and chemical reactions are quantitatively treated. It is shown how chemical reactions can provide work. Ideal and non ideal solutions are presented with the various standard states and activity coefficients. This book will be of use to a wide audience of students and professionals in the fields of Chemistry,...

The Zinc and Iodine Book

Building Fundamental Knowledge with Thematic Laboratory Activities for the Chemistry Educator

by Stephen DeMeo


This book is for chemistry teachers who are thinking about reinventing their laboratory experiments that they provide to their students. More than a collection of experiments, it is an example of using a chemical theme to teach chemistry. Instead of introducing many different chemicals per experiment as is the norm in most lab manuals, this novel resource focuses on two commonly found elements: Zinc and Iodine.So what is so special about these elements? At the heart of this resource is a colorful cyclic reaction between zinc and iodine, one that produces a compound that can decompose back to its original elements. This unique phenomenon demonstrates that matter not only changes, but is also conserved through a chemical reaction. Knowing that a compound can be the "same but different" than ...

Our Fathers

Making Black Men

by Lewis W. Diuguid


Many people don't understand why black lives must matter and why the racial divide seems to be taking the country back 50 years. Like the mythical Sankofa bird, the answer to what's missing now lies in what existed before. Our Fathers: Making Black Men focuses on one block of St. Louis in the mid-20th century, where African American businessmen living the American Dream also created a sense of community for boys in that neighborhood. Lincoln I. Diuguid, a PhD graduate of Cornell University in chemistry, anchored the block with Du-Good Chemical Laboratories & Manufacturers. The chemistry the book reveals isn't rocket science, it's just the lost formula of community engagement. Men like Doc gave boys on the street jobs and a strong work ethic. They did it through sharing the African American...

Mapping College Chemistry

Using Graphic Organizers to Solve and Understand the Toughest Unit Problems in General Chemistry

by Stephen DeMeo


This text is a chemistry problem solving resource appropriate for teachers and their students who are enrolled in high school Advanced Placement Chemistry or in a first-year college General Chemistry course. The book incorporates a chemistry problem solving plan, one that uses an innovative graphic organizer strategy. The strategy - successfully evaluated with students - combines problem solving processes with chemical concepts that will allow students to solve the most common and difficult problems encountered in the first year of chemistry. Topical problem solving will focus on limiting reactant stoichiometry, identifying types of chemical reactions, equilibrium, acid-base equilibria, and electrochemistry.Why would this resource be of interest to chemistry students? To be successful (to ...

National Remuneration (Pay) Preferences

Cultural Analysis within the Hofstede Model Using Cultural Values to Untangle the Web of Global Pay

by Linda M. Herkenhoff


Remuneration may be viewed as more than merely a cost in doing business. It may be used as a motivational tool to help achieve a multitude of strategic goals. Within the global context, effective use of this tool requires addressing not only motivational factors but also cultural factors. In this thesis, factors are considered within a multinational corporate framework and within a Cultural Remuneration Model. The model defines corporate culture, professional culture, national culture and individual characteristics as factors influencing employee values associated with remuneration preferences. The theoretical development of the model required a statistically significant multinational sample. To achieve this, data was collected in 17 countries from one multinational corporation withi...

Multiple Solution Methods for Teaching Science in the Classroom

Improving Quantitative Problem Solving Using Dimensional Analysis and Proportional Reasoning

by Stephen DeMeo


For the first time in science education, the subject of multiple solution methods is explored in book form. While a multiple method teaching approach is utilized extensively in math education, there are very few journal articles and no texts written on this topic in science. Teaching multiple methods to science students in order to solve quantitative word problems is important for two reasons. First it challenges the practice by teachers that one specific method should be used when solving problems. Secondly, it calls into question the belief that multiple methods would confuse students and retard their learning. Using a case study approach and informed by research conducted by the author, this book claims that providing students with a choice of methods as well as requiring additional met...

A Pound of Prevention for a Healthier Life

How and Why Avoiding Exposures to Toxic Chemicals and Other Sources of Oxidative Stress, the Cause of Most Disease, Lowers the Odds of Getting Sick

by Harold I. Zeliger


A Pound of Prevention for a Healthier Life shows the connection between oxidative stress and the onset of virtually all disease and discusses the causes of oxidative stress induced disease and ways to prevent it. The book includes a unique questionnaire for predicting disease onset in seemingly healthy people, and shows how steps taken to prevent any one disease may prevent many other unrelated diseases.Dr. Harold I. Zeliger, a chemical toxicologist who has been researching the causes of non-communicable diseases for more than 40 years, demonstrates how elevated oxidative stress is responsible for attacks on virtually all body organs and systems and how it triggers the onset of numerous diseases, including ADHD, autism, heart disease, respiratory disease, diabetes, obesity, Alzheimer's dis...

by Ondrias Karol


...How do we know that something is true or false? How does the brain discern the truth? What kind of mechanism allows the brain to interpret the information received in the shape of electrical and chemical impulses to which it is constantly exposed? Is it the case that our brains are endowed with appropriate algorithmic rules for discriminating between truth and untruth, alongside certain rules for handling, say, optical information? Is it the case that the brain produces illusions of truth like it does illusions of vision? My answer is in the positive, and this is what I shall be seeking to show in this essay. An essay in style, The Brain, Consciousness and Illusion of Truth is a valuable addition to the literature on the mind/body problem and an engrossing account of the human brain ...

by Michael Maus


This study is focused on the effects of photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer (CT) in three differently twisted donor-acceptor (D-A) biphenyls. Taking into account a further pair of differently twisted D-A biaryls new universal insights into the photoinduced electronic and conformation dynamics of D-A biaryls are obtained. Furthermore, possible applications in fields of solar energy conversion and fluorescence sensing of microenvironments are demonstrated. Experimental means of stationary and time-resolved (ps to s) luminescence, transient absorption (sub-ps), polarization spectroscopy, high pressure and low temperature techniques are employed in conjunction with quantum chemical calculations. Twist angle and solvent dependent electron transfer (ET) interactions between the D and A...

Calomel in America

Mercurial Panacea, War, Song and Ghosts

by Richard M. Swiderski


Formed as a word and a chemical compound in an culturally diverse Europe, calomel came to America as a solution to epidemics also imported. It grew into a primary gesture, both medical and commercial, of the healing professions. Opposition to its use, founded on experience with the effects of consuming it, took the form of song and satire that echoed faintly after the drug was forgotten.

by Shivaditya Gautam


Septoria leaf blotch has been the major disease of wheat in Britain and much of the rest of Europe. It has been reported that the disease causes serious yield losses to range from 31 to 53%. Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph: Septoria tritici) is the pathogen which causes Septoria leaf blotch. The disease can be controlled by various methods such as cultural practices, chemical control, using resistant varieties and biological control. In plant pathology, the term biological control leads to the introduction of microbial antagonists or host specific pathogens to suppress diseases and populations of one or more plant pathogens. This study investigated the microbial community on and within wheat leaves which can suppress Septoria leaf blotch by reducing the inoculum level of the causative...

by Santonino K. Banya


Chemistry is a human endeavor that relies on basic human qualities like creativity, insights, reasoning, and skills. It depends on habits of the mind: skepticism, tolerance of ambiguity, openness to new ideas, intellectual honesty, curiosity, and communication. Young female students begin studying chemistry curiosity; however, when unconvinced, they become skeptical. Researches focused on gender studies have indicated that attitudes toward science education differ between males and females. A declining interest in chemistry and the under representation of females in the chemical science was found (Jacobs, 2000). This study investigated whether self-confidence toward chemistry, the influence of role models, and knowledge about the usefulness of chemistry were affecting the attitudes toward...

by Antonio Lobo Gallardo


(Complete work in Spanish) The doctoral thesis contributes to some related Management Control areas such us Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) and the informal components of Control Systems. The objective of the research was to analyse how this process of business concentration may impact on the Management Control System of the acquired firm. For this purpose an alternative theoretical model have been developed from the review of Management Control literature and M&A in Management Accounting. This model builds on contingency theoretical insights and extends it with elements of informal control. To test the prepositions a single ethnographic in-depth case study was carried out. It was conducted in a Spanish subsidiary of an English chemical group during 31 months. The main findings of this res...

Artificial Invention

Synthesis of Innovative Thermal Networks, Power Cycles, Process Flowsheets and Other Systems

by Alexander Kott


This dissertation proposes a computational technique for automated "invention" of conceptual schemes of thermal systems. The input provided to the automated problem solver is a description of the streams entering and leaving the system. The output is a network of elementary processes: compression, expansion, heating, cooling, and chemical processes. The problem solver seeks a network that is feasible, and offers an optimal (or at least favorable) combination of energy and capital costs. The synthesis process is modeled as a heuristic search conducted in a state-space of all possible design versions. The main ideas of the dissertation have been implemented in a computer program called TED, which invented a number of nontrivial schemes. TED starts with an initial state (or states), which ma...

Pyrene Degradation by Mycobacterium sp. KMS

Biochemical Pathway, Enzymatic Mechanisms, and Humic Acid Effect

by Yanna Liang


Pyrene, a four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), was identified as the chemical that requires the largest land area for soil bioremediation due to the slow rate of biodegradation at the Libby, Montana Superfund site. Prepared bed land treatment is the specific bioremediation technology that is currently employed at this site. Although bioremediation has been widely accepted for treatment of contaminated soil due to its low cost, the effective application of bioremediation is often hindered by the lack of information related to: 1) biochemical pathways, 2) enzymatic mechanisms, and 3) effects of amendments. Mycobacterium sp. KMS is a new strain isolated from the land treatment units of the Libby site and has been found to utilize pyrene as a carbon and energy source. The genome o...

Investigating the Natural World of Chemistry with Kids

Experiments, Writing, and Drawing Activities for Learning Science

by Michael J. Strauss


This unique book of real chemistry and science for children illustrates the nature of physical and chemical change using the very smallest parts of things: atoms and molecules. It encourages children, ages 5-12, along with their parents or teachers, to become active learners of science, to discover meaning not only in the ideas and definitions of others, but also (and especially) in their own world. Chapters include: Evaporating, Condensing, Dissolving, Crystallizing, Mixing, Separating, Melting, Freezing, and Reacting.

Miracle of Petrochemicals

Olefins Industry: An In-Depth Look at Steam-Crackers

by Fahad H. Falqi


The purpose of this book is to provide readers with a thorough introduction to the essential design and operation aspects of olefins plants. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop the knowledge of the readers who are interested to know more about olefins plants employing steam-cracking technology. The author has gathered and developed this book based on extensive experience in many olefins projects as well as olefins operating plants. Included with this book are valuable materials provided by some contributions representing top and reputable olefins licensors and olefins equipment manufacturers for readers to gain insight information and content about steam-cracker plants. The contributors are Linde, Chevron Phillips Chemical Company (CP-Chem), TSKE, Graham, NATCO, SNM, and YJ-TMC...

by Tania Dey (editor)


Nanotechnology is a highly inter- and multi- disciplinary application oriented research area. Not only does it find its use in nanomedicine, solar cells, sensor development and so on, but can also be effectively utilized to prevent water pollution. Nanostructured materials such as magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, silver-impregnated cyclodextrin nanocomposites, nanostructured iron-zeolites, carbo-iron nanomaterials, photocatalytic titania nanoparticles, nanofiltration membranes and functionalized silica nanoparticles can be employed in water treatment to remove heavy metals, sediments, chemical effluents, charged particles, bacteria and other pathogens. This edited book comprises several review-style chapters written by world experts. The chapters are devoted to each of these nanot...

Understanding International Counter Terrorism

A Professional’s Guide to the Operational Art

by A. Hunsicker


Understanding International Counter Terrorism is one serious effort to lay out a comprehensive strategy of how to deal with a whole gamut of possible terrorist incidents by using a language that any person or first responders like policemen, security personnel, firemen, paramedics, etc. can understand. This guide covers everything from bombings and hostage- taking, to NBC (Nuclear, Biological and Chemical) Terrorism, what needs to be done before, during, and after an event. This manual combines what minimally needs to be understood about Operational Counter- Terrorism by the government- level policy maker, while at the same time helping the personnel on the first responder level who are planning to cope with what must at least initially seem like an overwhelming attack. Terrorism i...

by Ron Laurence McDowall


The management of hazardous and toxic waste projects in Asia (especially that related to intractable chemicals) has had a less than acceptable performance profile during the last 20 years. There have been numerous documented cases of management and systems failures in intractable chemical recovery projects, despite the establishment of global conventions designed to avoid such problems. A research programme was undertaken with the aim of producing a management model for companies to help prevent such failures in the future. The research began in the field with an exploration of management culture and its impact on project management. This involved multiple visits to five Asian countries and interviewing people involved in intractable waste management at both strategic and operational ...

Agroecosystems of South India

Nutrient Dynamics, Ecology and Productivity

by K.R. Krishna


Agroecosystems of South India is a unique treatise that deals with the relevance of natural resources, genetic stocks, fertilizers, and agronomic practices on the productivity of agroecoregions. Within the context of this book, an agroecosystem has been defined as a conglomerate of small cropping zones, which may be mono-cropping expanses or intercrops that occur in various geographic regions of South India. South India abounds with several such agroecosystems that encompass field crops, vegetables, cash crops, plantations, and forest species. However, the main emphasis within this volume is restricted to agroecosystems that include major cereals, legumes, and oil seed crops. There are 10 chapters in this volume. The first, on historical aspects, traces important events related to domest...

Vision Facts

Questions about the Human Eye

by Jason Yang & Charles Pidgeon


Vision Facts is a question and answer guide to the wonders of the human eye, its complex structures and the process of visual perception. It traces the journey of vision from a ray of light entering the eye to the processing done by the brain, to the development and aging of the human visual system and common disorders associated with both processes. Organized in an intuitive question-and-answer format and accompanied by clear diagrams, Vision Facts provides answers regarding your vision in a manner accessible to all who are interested. Each topic includes references to external resources such as lecture notes and research papers for those who wish to delve deeper. It is a perfect handbook for anyone who is interested in visual science, sensory processing, neuroscience, or physiology; and...

How to Stop Dying for a Cigarette

A Workbook-Diary to Enable Smokers to Break the Habit Without Drugs, Substitutes or Withdrawal

by Ruthe Price


Are you serious about ending your addiction to cigarettes? Are you ready to break free of tobacco without drugs, patches or the agony of withdrawal? The reason smokers cannot stop smoking is twofold. One, the cigarette companies have deliberately added chemicals that are effective in addicting the user and two, the act of lighting up is always connected to something else. The cure lies in the breaking of those connections. This is drug addiction but, unfortunately, the methods that affect other addictions don't work. HOW TO STOP DYING FOR A CIGARETTE uses the how, when and where of your smoking habit to attack the root cause of your addiction. As you dissociate smoking from the activities to which you’ve attached it, you begin to resent its intrusion into your life. The more you les...

by Lobna Ali Al-Khalifa


A significant volume of literature has been developed that seeks to provide an explanation for the growth of FDI and its impact on less developed countries. The literature is characterized by diversity and controversy. Based on it, a range of reasons for encouraging investment have been proposed including its favorable effects on employment levels, the balance of payments and balance of trade of the host country and also the potential for acquisition of technology and skills (Cave: 1982 and Dunning: 1993). Equally, the potentially negative effects of growing levels of foreign investment on domestic market structures and national sovereignty have long been the focus of attention (Vernon: 1971 and Jenkins: 1987). More recent studies focused on the positive effect FDI can create through the i...

by Kurt A. Richardson


The phenomena of superconductivity has enormous industrial potential, but the penetration of superconductor-based products has, thus far, been slow. An indisputable fact is that there are prizes, and profits, for the teams that solve the critical problems in understanding and processing these complex materials. The continuous processing of superconducting tapes and wires is a necessary stage that will open up the industrial market to the designers of a diverse range of time and energy saving devices, particularly in ultra-fast computing and lossless power transmission. The aim of the research reported herein was to investigate the fabrication of superconducting tapes and films via two different processes, namely: the established PIT technique, and a less well known electrochemical route...