Against the Tide

A Critical Review by Scientists of How Physics and Astronomy Get Done

by Martín López Corredoira & Carlos Castro Perelman (Editors)


Nobody should have a monopoly of the truth in this universe. The censorship and suppression of challenging ideas against the tide of mainstream research, the blacklisting of scientists, for instance, is neither the best way to do and filter science, nor to promote progress in the human knowledge. The removal of good and novel ideas from the scientific stage is very detrimental to the pursuit of the truth. There are instances in which a mere unqualified belief can occasionally be converted into a generally accepted scientific theory through the screening action of refereed literature and meetings planned by the scientific organizing committees and through the distribution of funds controlled by "club opinions". It leads to unitary paradigms and unitary thinking not necessarily associated to...

Seismic Methods and Applications

A Guide for the Detection of Geologic Structures, Earthquake Zones and Hazards, Resource Exploration, and Geotechnical Engineering

by Andreas Stark


This book has been written for those who need a solid understanding of the seismic exploration method without difficult mathematics. It is presented in a format that allows one to naturally progress from the underlying physical principles to the actual seismic method. The mathematics needed for the subject is kept as simple as possible; students only need high school physics and mathematics to thoroughly grasp the principles covered. Dr. Stark has developed this text and honed its content with feedback from hundreds of students over nearly two decades of teaching seismic exploration geophysics. This textbook will teach students the principles for the detection of geologic structures, earthquake zones and hazards, resource exploration, and geotechnical engineering.This title is Winner of 20...

by Michael J. Cardamone


Fundamental Concepts of Physics introduces students with little scientific background to college physics. Dr. Michael J. Cardamone presents the science of physics in a nonthreatening, non-mathematical conceptual format, with emphasis on its historical and cultural foundations. While directed at non-science undergraduate college students, the text is accessible to anyone with a curiosity concerning how we arrived at our current understanding of our physical world and its place in the universe. The goal is to allow the reader to come to an understanding of what we now know and how we came to know it. The emphasis is on the large concepts rather than the mathematical details involved with attaining this understanding. After completing the study of this text, the reader should have a greater a...

by Rahul I. Patel


Debris disks are optically thin circumstellar disks around mainsequence stars, comprised of micron-sized grains. The dust is generated from destructive collisions of planetesimals, induced from gravitational perturbations by large planets. Debris disks can as signposts for planetary systems, through which, a universal picture can be obtained that encompasses the evolution and architecture of the Solar System’s own dust disk and planetary system. The dust in these disks can be detected by their thermal infrared flux, measured as an excess above the photospheric emission. Dust at different circumstellar locations, inferred from the peak wavelength of the detected emission, can act as a probe for local dynamical activity in the system. Over the last thirty years, cold disks, analogous to th...

The God Particle

The Discovery and Modeling of the Ultimate Prime Particle

by Ted Jaeckel


Dubbed the "God particle" by Nobel Prize-winning physicist Leon Lederman, the Higgs boson is a hypothetical particle which, like divinity, is all pervading but undetectable. Scientists around the world race to find this clandestine particle. This book is about a different quest to find a different particle. This too is all-pervasive and totally clandestine. By revisiting the key experiments of the past, those that have shaped physics as we know it today, and re-assessing them in the light of a new theory based on a prime particle, we confirm the existence of the elusive God Particle. It’s a particle belonging to an as yet undreamed of class of matter, many orders of magnitude smaller than anything we have even imagined. The theory based on this particle ultimately leads to an overarch...

Challenging Modern Physics

Questioning Einstein's Relativity Theories

by Al Kelly


Newton's Laws held for 300 years until Einstein developed the 'special theory of relativity' in 1905. Experiments done since then show anomalies in that theory. This book starts with a description of the special theory of relativity. It is shown that Einstein was not the first to derive the famous equation E = mc2, which has become synonymous with his name. Next, experimental evidence that cannot be explained by special relativity is given. In the light of this evidence, the two basic postulates of the special theory of relativity on the behaviour of light are shown to be untenable. A new theory (universal relativity) is developed, which conforms to the experimental evidence. The movement of a conductor near a pole of a magnet and the movement of that pole near the conductor does not...

Comprehending And Decoding The Cosmos

Discovering Solutions to Over a Dozen Cosmic Mysteries by Utilizing Dark Matter Relationism, Cosmology, and Astrophysics

by Jerome Drexler


There are many mysteries involving cosmic phenomena. Jerome Drexler used 14 of these and his analytical concept of dark matter (DM) relationism to discover a promising candidate for dark matter, the source of ultra-high energy cosmic rays, and theories for star formation, starburst galaxies, and the emergence of DM halos. To test the validity of his discoveries, Drexler used another 11 unexplained cosmic phenomena discovered by astronomers primarily during 2005. Utilizing his same promising dark matter candidate, Drexler was able to explain in a plausible manner all 11 of these recently discovered cosmic mysteries. Drexler's research has led not only to an identification of dark matter and to plausible explanations for the 25 cosmic phenomena, but also to a deeper understanding of man...

Flying on the Wings of Genius

A Chronicle of Modern Physics, Book 2

by Dr. Andrew Worsley


This book is a must read for everyone interested in the future role and direction of science. It begins with the description of the new discoveries made at the turn of the previous century, which have culminated in the scientific knowledge we have today.The book then discusses the fundamental constants of Nature and how they inter-relate and why they may have come to be what they are. This second book compliments and adds a vast new tranche of knowledge to Book I of the series, but is at the same time entirely readable in its own right. As it chronicles the development of modern science it opens a new window on our undestanding of science at the most fundamental level of knowledge.

Soaring on the Wings of Genius

A Chronicle of Modern Physics, Book 3

by Dr. Andrew Worsley


Is there a unifying solution to myriad physical laws of Nature that govern the Universe? String theory represents the closest yet to such a unifying solution. However, after 20 years string theory has been unable to predict the physical constants of Nature and still has not provided the answer to quantum gravity. Recent strong evidence for the presence of a newly discovered energy, which affects the entire Universe may be the first clue to an as yet unlocked scientific paradigm. Dr Worsley argues forcibly that the answer to this paradigm opens a new window on the truly unified nature of the Universe. The arguments presented are clear concise and compelling.

Prime Elements of Ordinary Matter, Dark Matter & Dark Energy

Beyond Standard Model & String Theory

by Vladimir B. Ginzburg


The book describes a history of the vortex theory. Introduced at the dawn of science almost 2600 years ago, it had passed through five phases of accumulation of its strength by absorbing the discoveries made during the Greek civilization, the Copernicus Revolution, the age of electromagnetism, the atomic age, and the information age. During the first four phases (see Chapters 1 through 12 of this book), the development of the vortex theory followed the same misfortunate pattern. Each time, this theory managed to bring attention of a new generation of brilliant scientists, who were enchanted by a deep physical meaning of its basic concept. But, although they employed the latest advances in science, none of them was able to produce a mathematical tool making the vortex theory practically...

Ordaining Reality

The Science Behind the Power of Positive Thinking

by Joseph E. Donlan


Many people believe in the Power of Positive Thinking, but, until now, no one has credibly explained how it works. It has been this author’s mission for 30 years to develop a plausible theory to support how mere thoughts can tangibly influence future events. In this book the author presents a paradigm which shows how our right brain hemisphere can tap into a hidden domain which can influence the world around us. To accomplish this, he takes the reader through the subject of physics as it is known today and points out its recognized flaws and problems. He then introduces and explains Eastern Philosophy and ties it into Western Physics. In conjunction with this broadened view he explains how the human brain developed to comprehend both the Eastern and Western views...

Understanding Radiation Science

Basic Nuclear and Health Physics

by James Mannie Shuler


The purpose of Understanding Radiation Science: Basic Nuclear and Health Physics is to provide the reader a basic understanding of radiation science. Therefore, basic nuclear physics and health physics principles are presented through chapters on atomic structure, types of radiation, terminology and units, radiation biology, exposure and controls, background radiation, personnel monitoring, and radiation instrumentation. The book concludes with chapters on historical events and definitions. This book provides introductory information for students starting their education in nuclear physics, health physics and nuclear engineering. The material covered in this book is appropriate for all types of radiation workers. Persons studying to take the health physics certification exam, radiation pr...

Disproof of Bell's Theorem

Illuminating the Illusion of Entanglement, Second Edition

by Joy Christian


A remarkable concept known as "entanglement" in quantum physics requires an incredibly bizarre link between subatomic particles. When one such particle is observed, quantum entanglement demands the rest of them to be affected instantaneously, even if they are universes apart. Einstein called this "spooky actions at a distance", and argued that such bizarre predictions of quantum theory show that it is an incomplete theory of nature. In 1964, however, John Bell proposed a theorem which seemed to prove that such spooky actions at a distance are inevitable for any physical theory, not just quantum theory. Since then many experiments have confirmed these long-distance correlations. But now, in this groundbreaking collection of papers, the author exposes a fatal flaw in the logic and mathematic...

Neutron Stars and NuSTAR

A Systematic Survey of Neutron Star Masses in High Mass X-ray Binaries and Characterization of CdZnTe Detectors for NuSTAR

by Varun B. Bhalerao


This book centers around the study of neutron stars, especially those in massive binary systems. To this end, it has two distinct components: the observational study of neutron stars in massive binaries with a goal of measuring neutron star masses and participation in NuSTAR, the first imaging hard X-ray mission, one that is extremely well suited to the study of massive binaries and compact objects in our Galaxy. The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission that will carry the first focusing high energy X-ray telescope to orbit. NuSTAR has an order-of-magnitude better angular resolution and has two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than any currently orbiting hard X- ray telescope. I worked to develop, calibrate, and test CdZnTe detectors for ...

by David R. Law


We study the spatially resolved properties of star-forming galaxies at redshift z ~ 2 - 3 on scales ~ 1 kpc using a combination of morphological and kinematic analyses in an effort to characterize the major mechanisms of galaxy formation in the young universe. Using a sample of 216 galaxies which have been spectroscopically confirmed to lie between redshifts z = 1.8 - 3.4 in the GOODS-N field we demonstrate that rest-UV morphology (as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope) is statistically uncorrelated with physical properties such as star formation rate and is therefore unable to support the hypothesis that the prevalence of irregular morphologies indicates a high major merger fraction. Further, we present a sample of 13 galaxies observed with the OSIRIS integral field spectrograph and the...

Electronic and Optical Properties of Semiconductors

A Study Based on the Empirical Tight Binding Model

by Lok C. Lew Yan Voon


This study is a theoretical investigation of the electronic and optical properties of intrinsic semiconductors using the orthogonal empirical tight binding model. An analysis of the bulk properties of semiconductors with the zincblende, diamond and rocksalt structures has been carried out. We have extended the work of others to higher order in the interaction integrals and derived new parameter sets for certain semiconductors which better fit the experimental data over the Brillouin zone. The Hamiltonian of the heterostructures is built up layer by layer from the parameters of the bulk constituents. The second part of this work examines a number of applications of the theory. We present a new microscopic derivation of the intervalley deformation potentials within the tight bindin...

by Kurt A. Richardson


The phenomena of superconductivity has enormous industrial potential, but the penetration of superconductor-based products has, thus far, been slow. An indisputable fact is that there are prizes, and profits, for the teams that solve the critical problems in understanding and processing these complex materials. The continuous processing of superconducting tapes and wires is a necessary stage that will open up the industrial market to the designers of a diverse range of time and energy saving devices, particularly in ultra-fast computing and lossless power transmission. The aim of the research reported herein was to investigate the fabrication of superconducting tapes and films via two different processes, namely: the established PIT technique, and a less well known electrochemical route...

by Nicholas V. Sushkin


The electrostatic interaction between two charged spheres in the presence of a screening electrolyte is calculated at the level of the linearized Debye-Hückel theory. The calculation is performed analytically as a multipole expansion by applying two-center spherical harmonic expansions and symbolic manipulation methods. I focus on charge-charge and charge-induced dipole interactions, calculated for two spheres of possibly unequal size. The former interaction is given to good approximation by the familiar Debye-Hückel form ~ q1q2exp[-k(R-2a)]/[(epsilon*r(1+ka)^2]. The new results are the charge-induced dipole interactions. Physically, these terms arise from two sources: (i) surface polarization charge at the surface of each sphere, and (ii) exclusion of the counterion cloud of eac...

The Pendulum Paradigm

Variations on a Theme and the Measure of Heaven and Earth

by Martin Beech


The pendulum is perhaps the simplest experimental devices ever constructed, and yet for all its simplicity it has historically enabled scientists to both investigate and enumerate gravity; the fundamental force that shapes the very universe. The pendulum has also allowed astronomers and geologists to measure the motion, mass and distribution of matter within the Earth, and its stately swing is at the very heartbeat of time. This book explores the many applications of the pendulum, from its employment as a fundamental experimental device, such as in the Cavendish torsion balance for measuring the universal gravitational constant, to its everyday, practical use in geology, astronomy and horology.

by Harshad Joshi


Processive enzymes are a special class of enzymes which presumably remain attached to their polymeric substrates between multiple rounds of catalysis. Due to this property, the substrate slides along the enzyme and reduces the time for the random diffusional enzyme-substrate encounters thereby increasing the efficiency of these enzymes manifold. Although structural information from many processive enzymes is available, the atomistic details of particularly the substrate sliding process, which is an inherently dynamic process, remain largely unknown. We take first steps to understand the sliding process by investigating a prototypic processive enzyme: Streptococcus Pneumoniae Hyaluronate lyase, a bacterial enzyme that degrades the polysaccharide substrate hyaluronan. Here we have investiga...

The Fourth Source

Effects of Natural Nuclear Reactors

by Robert J. Tuttle


This book describes how the effects of nature's own nuclear reactors have shaped the Earth, the Solar System, the Universe, and the history of life as we know it. It focuses on observed effects that are poorly explained by our standard theories, identifies certain errors in those theories, and shows how these effects are caused by natural nuclear fission reactors. The theory of Plate Tectonics is wrong, and it is shown that expansion of the Earth causes continental drift. A physically reasonable mechanism is proposed for expansion and observational data are presented to show that this occurs. Evolution is explained as punctuated equilibrium, with mutations caused by abrupt surges of radiation, and related life forms that have been interpreted as seperate species are actually the result of ...

by Evgeny V. Shun'ko


From flat-panel televisions to thermonuclear fusion for energy production, plasmas currently have numerous and wide applications in sciences and industry. A diversity of plasma diagnostics is available to physicists and engineers to measure and control plasma parameters. Among them, the Langmuir probe is the most inexpensive and most popular instrument and method. The Langmuir probe is a small electrode which is submerged in plasma in order to measure the probe current-voltage characteristic. The same characteristic is processed further to derive the electron and ion concentration, the electron distribution function, and the plasma potential at the probe location. Langmuir probe diagnostics afford rapid measurements of the electron distribution function and plasma potential at a good time...

An Introduction to Gravity Modification

A Guide to Using Laithwaite's and Podkletnov's Experiments and the Physics of Forces for Empirical Results, Second Edition

by Benjamin Thomas Solomon


An Introduction to Gravity Modification, Second Edition is the result of a 12-year (1999-2011) study into the theoretical and technological feasibility of gravity modification, that presents the new physics of forces by replacing relativistic, quantum and string theories with process models. Gravity, electromagnetism and mechanical forces are unified by Ni fields, and obey a common equation g = (tau)c^2. Gravity modification is defined as the modification of the strength and direction of the gravitational acceleration without the use of mass as the primary source of this modification, in local space time. It consists of field modulation and field vectoring. Field modulation is the ability to attenuate or amplify a force field. Field vectoring is the ability to change the direction of th...

by Igor.V. Smirnov, Vladimir I. Vysotskii, & Alla A. Kornilova


This is the first book to reveal the mechanism of 'long-term water memory' effects. The theory is based on precise mathematical calculations and a fundamental physical model of clathrate hydrates developed by Pauling in 1959. This book gives a detailed review of modern theories dealing with structure and properties of water. It also provides theory regarding the effect of activated water on biological systems under the life suppressive conditions such as ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. In addition, it provides detail information regarding the mechanism of DNA self-reparation process under the influence of activated water. Also included is a chapter on the innovative patented technology based on mechanism of 'long-term water memory' to prove the feasilibity with experimental ...

Our Universe—Infinite and Eternal

Its Physics, Nature, and Cosmology

by Barry Bruce


The field equations of Einstein's General Relativity are solved for an infinite universe with uniform density. One of the three solutions, the Infinite Universe of Einstein and Newton, fits all the data for the Hubble diagram better than the Big Bang. Next, using general relativity and the physics that evolved from Newton, the force of gravity between two massive point particles is found. Utilizing this force and the Infinite Universe of Einstein and Newton model, the net force of gravity on a point particle in arbitrary motion, due the uniform mass distribution of the universe, is calculated by integration. This net force of gravity is found to be equal to the Force of Inertia. These calculations explain Newton's First Law, Newton's Second Law, and the equivalence of inertial and grav...

On the Wings of Genius

A Chronicle of Modern Physics, Book I

by Andrew Worsley


This book is an essential guide for anyone inquiring about the present and future place of science in humankind's destiny. The subject is the the history and explanation of modern physics. Every so often science moves by large leaps, sometimes spurred by the realization that the commonly held beliefs of the day need revising.One such great change occurred at the turn of the twentieth century, when there was a revolution in modern scientific thinking. Here the genius and ironies behind those discoveries are described. This book has great clarity and removes the shrouds of mystery, which envelop one of contemporary science's greatest challenges. It finds answers to the deepest questions of modern phsyics and ultimately describes a unified design of the Universe, which has truth b...