Caveman Chemistry

28 Projects, from the Creation of Fire to the Production of Plastics

by Kevin M. Dunn

09/28/2003

Learn not only how to recreate the chemicals that changed history, but the history behind the chemicals. A five star college level teaching aid! Half a million years ago our ancestors learned to make fire from scratch. They crafted intricate tools from stone and brewed mind-altering elixirs from honey. Their descendants transformed clay into pottery, wool into clothing, and ashes into cleansers. In ceramic crucibles they won metal from rock, the metals lead to colored glazes and glass. Buildings of brick and mortar enshrined books of parchment and paper. Kings and queens demanded ever more colorful clothing and accessories in order to out-class clod-hoppers and call-girls. Kingdoms rose and fell by the power of saltpeter, sulfur, and charcoal. And the demands of everyday folk for glass ...

by Pierre Infelta & Michael Graetzel

12/20/2002

In this volume (volume 1), the tools necessary to study and understand systems in which chemical reactions can take place are developed. The variables of reaction are the keys to this understanding. Criteria for chemical equilibrium are established. It is shown how chemical reactions can provide work as, for example, in batteries. For complex systems, the number of independent reactions and their nature have to be determined systematically. The effect of external factors on chemical equilibria is analyzed and illustrated. The formalism necessary to study ideal and real solutions is provided. The various standard states in use and the corresponding activity coefficients are clearly defined. In volume 2, the tools necessary to study and understand systems in which chemical reactions can t...

by Michael Graetzel & Pierre Infelta

12/20/2002

In this volume, the tools necessary to study and understand systems in which chemical reactions can take place are developed. The variables of reaction are the keys to this understanding. Criteria for chemical equilibrium are established. It is shown how chemical reactions can provide work as, for example, in batteries. For complex systems, the number of independent reactions and their nature have to be determined systematically. The effect of external factors on chemical equilibria is analyzed and illustrated. The formalism necessary to study ideal and real solutions is provided. The various standard states in use and the corresponding activity coefficients are clearly defined. The statistical aspect of thermodynamics is best understood once students are familiar with the rest of the boo...

A Self-Study Guide to the Principles of Organic Chemistry

Key Concepts, Reaction Mechanisms, and Practice Questions for the Beginner

by Jiben Roy

07/24/2013

A Self-Study Guide to the Principles of Organic Chemistry: Key Concepts, Reaction Mechanisms, and Practice Questions for the Beginner will help students new to organic chemistry grasp the key concepts of the subject quickly and easily, as well as build a strong foundation for future study. Starting with the definition of "atom," the author explains molecules, electronic configuration, bonding, hydrocarbons, polar reaction mechanisms, stereochemistry, reaction varieties, organic spectroscopy, aromaticity and aromatic reactions, biomolecules, organic polymers, and a synthetic approach to organic compounds. The over one hundred diagrams and charts contained in this volume will help students visualize the structures and bonds as they read the text, and make the logic of organic chemistry clear...

Investigating the Natural World of Chemistry with Kids

Experiments, Writing, and Drawing Activities for Learning Science

by Michael J. Strauss

09/30/2012

This unique book of real chemistry and science for children illustrates the nature of physical and chemical change using the very smallest parts of things: atoms and molecules. It encourages children, ages 5-12, along with their parents or teachers, to become active learners of science, to discover meaning not only in the ideas and definitions of others, but also (and especially) in their own world. Chapters include: Evaporating, Condensing, Dissolving, Crystallizing, Mixing, Separating, Melting, Freezing, and Reacting.

by Wolfgang Hummel

07/28/2002

The Nagra/PSI Chemical Thermodynamic Data Base 01/01 is an encyclopedia of thermodynamic data recommended for environmental studies. The data base focuses on elements commonly found as major solutes in natural waters, and on actinides and fission products relevant for radioactive waste disposal projects. It is the official chemical thermodynamic data base used in Swiss radioactive waste disposal projects. The detailed discussion of every number recommended in this encyclopedia is the result of a multi man-year project of the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), a Swiss National Lab. The five authors of this work have many years of experience in research, data base development and the application of thermodynamic data in environmental studies. The data included for many elements are based on the...

Thermodynamique

Principes et Applications

by Pierre Infelta and Michael Graetzel

06/01/2006

Notre présentation classique de la thermodynamique, avec quelques illustrations de l’aspect statistique, ne requiert que peu de connaissances mathématiques. L’existence et la définition de la température thermodynamique permettent de définir l’entropie d’un système, de montrer qu’elle est une fonction d’état, puis, d’énoncer le deuxième principe de la thermodynamique. Les diverses fonctions thermodynamiques s’imposent naturellement avec leurs significations. On découvre que les propriétés extensives des systèmes réels peuvent être obtenues à l’aide des grandeurs molaires partielles dont fait partie le potentiel chimique. L’étude des gaz parfaits permet d’obtenir une expression formelle de leur potentiel chimique puis, pour les gaz réels, de dé...

by Pierre P. Infelta

12/18/2003

The fundamental aspects of classical thermodynamics are presented in a simple compact way. The equations derived are illustrated by numerous (111) examples, often direct application of the relations just obtained. The (four) laws of thermodynamics are presented and illustrated. The need to define thermodynamic temperature, the meaning of auxiliary thermodynamic functions, the origin, usefulness and use of partial molar quantities are all examined. Gaseous systems, phase equilibria and chemical reactions are quantitatively treated. It is shown how chemical reactions can provide work. Ideal and non ideal solutions are presented with the various standard states and activity coefficients. This book will be of use to a wide audience of students and professionals in the fields of Chemistry,...

by Michael Maus

10/17/1998

This study is focused on the effects of photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer (CT) in three differently twisted donor-acceptor (D-A) biphenyls. Taking into account a further pair of differently twisted D-A biaryls new universal insights into the photoinduced electronic and conformation dynamics of D-A biaryls are obtained. Furthermore, possible applications in fields of solar energy conversion and fluorescence sensing of microenvironments are demonstrated. Experimental means of stationary and time-resolved (ps to s) luminescence, transient absorption (sub-ps), polarization spectroscopy, high pressure and low temperature techniques are employed in conjunction with quantum chemical calculations. Twist angle and solvent dependent electron transfer (ET) interactions between the D and A...

by Mihai V. Putz

06/06/2003

In the limits of the density functional theory there are introduced and deduced fundamental chemical descriptors as the chemical action concept, the chemical field, new electronegativity, rate reaction and chemical hardness formulations, the reduced total energy and the partial Hohenberg-Kohn functionals. For electronic density computations the quantum statistic picture of the path integral Feynman-Kleinert formalism is employed to its markovian approximation, providing the framework in which the majority of the chemical reactions and the reactivity of the electronic systems can be treated together with the internal and environmental couplings. Evaluation, representation and interpretation of the present analyzed chemical indices are performed for a prototype many-electronic system such th...

Problems in Organic Chemistry

A Self-Study Guide

by David Horn and Michael Strauss

09/25/2013

Problems in Organic Chemistry: A Self-Study Guide is the only undergraduate organic chemistry book to use a lead oriented-incremental approach. It aids and reinforces learning by encouraging students to connect sometimes disparate facts and theories in order to solve problems. The approach uniquely complements the lecture material by building concepts sequentially within a problem-solving context. The book is organized into three major sections: problems; lead-oriented cumulative verbal statements; and detailed solutions with structures and in-depth explanations.

by Danylo Zherebetskyy

05/28/2010

The focus of this thesis is the study of the electronic and magnetic structure of three representative members of Fe-bearing rock-forming silicates, viz. orthoferrosilite (Fe2+2Si2O6), almandine (Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3) and andradite (Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3). These minerals have attracted significant attention due to their abundance in the Earth's crust and mantle, and because crystallised silicates are main components of cosmic dust which is the most abundant raw material in the Universe. For this purpose quantum mechanical first principles electronic structure calculations are performed by the most efficient DFT method in the local spin-density approximation for calculating spectroscopic data: the spin-polarized self consistent charge Xa method. The specific feature and strength of these investigatio...

by Chengetayi Cornelius Rimayi

11/29/2011

One of the major problems encountered in qualitative and quantitative determination of residual pesticides by gas chromatography is the matrix effects. Matrix components have a considerable effect on the way analysis is conducted and the quality of results obtained, introducing problems such as inaccurate quantification, low analyte detectability and reporting of false positive or even false negative results. It was aimed to develop and validate a suitable method for counteracting the matrix effects so as to improve the detection and quantification of selected organochlorine pesticide residues from real water samples. The real water samples used were sampled from three points along the Jukskei River catchment area in Gauteng, South Africa for a period of 7 months from January to July 2010 ...

by Antonius Indarto

06/11/2010

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot share the same origin (incomplete combustion or pyrolysis) and nature, namely structural and electronic features. The purpose of the research work discussed in this thesis is to offer a theoretical contribution to elucidate some aspects of PAH and soot particle formation. The interest in carrying out such a work lies on one hand in the ubiquitous presence of both species in the environment, on the other hand on the concern for their impact on both human health, specifically involving the respiratory system, and climate, in particular as regards global warming. Thus, a better knowledge on the formation mechanisms of PAHs and soot could then help the efforts to reduce their concentration in our atmosphere. Since the formation mechanisms still...