The Florida Spiny Lobster

How to Catch It, Its Biology, A Crawfish Cookbook, and First Aid for Minor Diving Injuries

by John Kappes


The Florida Spiny Lobster tells what every crawfish hunter ought to know about his quarry, what equipment he’ll need, where to find them, and how to catch them. It also provides some tried and true recipes for those lucky lobster hunters who get some of these spiny delicacies as far as the kitchen. It also delves into the rules and regulations covering its capture and gives some common sense suggestions on how to safely manage the hunt. In writing the section on the biology of the spiny lobster the author takes great care to keep everything within the grasp of the average reader. Unnecessary scientific terminology is avoided while making an effort to answer every question that is likely to be asked about the crawfish. Every lobster hunter is likely to experience some ...

Axial Character Seriation in Mammals

An Historical and Morphological Exploration of the Origin, Development, Use, and Current Collapse of the Homology Paradigm

by Aaron G. Filler


Modern biology is increasingly focused on the role of repetitive anatomical structures in the embryological construction of organisms. The discovery of the homeobox (Hox) genes by Edward Lewis in 1978 ushered in a series of stunning revelations such as the fundamental commonality of insect segments and mammalian vertebrae – a wild and ridiculed idea first proposed by Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire in 1822 that has now been proven correct. Axial Character Seriation in Mammals is an unabridged edition of the 1986 Harvard University PhD Thesis of Aaron G. Filler, MD, PhD that pioneered our modern reassessment of mammalian vertebrae in the light of the new homeotic biology. As Dr. Filler points out in fascinating detail, the leading explanations of similarity among animals before Darwin wer...

The Science and Lore of the Plant Cell Wall

Biosynthesis, Structure and Function

by Takahisa Hayashi (editor)


Plant cell walls are composed of complex carbohydrates, proteins, phenolic compounds, and inorganic ions, all of which play functional roles. Cellulose (1,4-beta-glucan) and callose (1,3-beta-glucan) are synthesized in the plasma membrane, while other polysaccharides are synthesized in the Golgi. Plant cell growth occurs with the loosening of the walls, which may be caused by several enzymatic actions. Plant development is related to the morphological changes of cells and tissue, which is caused by structural changes of the walls. This remarkable collection presents the latest understanding of plant cell walls and cellulose synthesis from some of the world's best and most promising researchers. The book is divided into eight sections describing: Cell Wall Structure, Biosynthesis, Cell W...

The Microcosm Within

Evolution and Extinction in the Hologenome

by William B. Miller, Jr.


You are not what you think you are. New research is transforming how we understand ourselves—from a singular 'self' to a vast cooperative, co-dependent and collaborative network of cellular environments and ecologies—a microcosm within. From this unique perspective, a startling revision of evolutionary theory unfurls. Sharply reasoned and certain to be controversial, The Microcosm Within takes its readers on a sweeping scientific journey that reorganizes our thinking about our biological selves, evolution, and extinction. Darwin has dominated evolution for over a century. But many issues remain puzzling—What is the origin of self-sacrifice? Does natural selection really account for evolution? Why is homosexuality commonplace in the animal kingdom? Why were the arms of Tyrannosau...

Pest Control Simplified for Everyone

Kill, Repel, or Mitigate Pests With or Without Pesticides

by Danny Ledoux


Why call an exterminator? Save thousands of dollars every year. Protect your family and property, and keep yourself safe from disease. This guide will teach you the art of responsible pest elimination. Have you stared at shelves of pesticides wondering which to buy, which are safe, which treatment will eliminate your pest, and how to apply it? If so, this book is for you. You only lack the trade secrets and the knowledge, such as safe application methods, how to prevent an attack in the first place, when killing is not necessary, and how all of this affects our environment. Before you buy your next can of bug spray, before you get bitten again, before you buy or sell a house, or before you go outdoors, read this book and learn how to: - Kill all types of household and yard pest...

Basic Genetics

A Primer Covering Molecular Composition of Genetic Material, Gene Expression and Genetic Engineering, and Mutations and Human Genetic Disorders, 2nd Edition

by Ahmed Abouelmagd & Hussein M. Ageely


Basic Genetics is a concise introductory textbook that focuses not only on understanding and explaining the main points of genetics, but also upon covering the required essential traditional subjects in the field. The main goal of this textbook is to help first year students who are taking their first course in human genetics to understand the different topics within genetics. It is of particular interest for those who are preparing themselves to study medicine or other medical sciences. This textbook presents only the essential required information. Some of the different subjects included in the eight chapters are: cell cycle and cellular division, Mendelian principles of heredity, the molecular basis of genetic material, gene expression and gene expression control, genetic variations an...

An Atlas of Opossum Organogenesis

Opossum Development

by William J. Krause, Ph.D.


This atlas presents a series of photographic illustrations and line drawings that summarize the major developmental events that occur during organogenesis in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).It will be of interest to General Biologists, Zoologists, Wildlife Biologists, Embryologists and Medical Scientists.

by Niall Shanks and C. Ray Greek


The central concern of this book is with the "prediction problem" in biomedical research. In particular, the authors examine the use of animal models to predict human responses in drug and disease research. The arguments discussed are drawn from both biological and biomedical theory (with numerous examples and case studies drawn from evolutionary biology, complex systems theory, oncology, teratology, and AIDS research), and analyses of empirical evidence (concerning, for example, data on intra- and inter-species differences revealed by recent results from genome analyses of various species, human population studies, and statistical studies of the predictive utility of animal models). This book comes to the unique conclusion that while animals can be successfully used for many endeavors in ...

An Introduction to Vitamins, Minerals and Oxidative Stress

The Role of Micronutrients and Reactive Oxygen Species in Normal and Pathological Processes

by Stefan A. Hulea


This book presents in simple and concise terms the biological functions of vitamins and minerals, what makes them essential to life and why they must be replenished daily from food. The best food sources for these micronutrients and the daily recommended intakes of vitamins and minerals are also presented. Information on these important micronutrients is all presented in one place (Part I) as opposed to the current text books where it is scattered throughout the text, making its retrieval tedious and time-consuming. In addition, the trace elements get an adequate coverage in contrast to the current texts. The second part introduces the reader to the concept of oxidative stress and the role of free radicals (mainly of oxygen and nitrogen) in the regulation of several biological processes ...


The Biological Imprint of Applied Intelligence

by Alice Travis


In a bold, reasoned, and meticulously researched knowledge leap, Cognitive Evolution erases the demarcation between life and intelligent life, deciphers the concepts of intelligence and cognition, and moves our kind to the precipices of digitizing the anatomical gnome of reason. Cognitive Evolution suggests that the high order mental behaviors of Homo sapiens are rooted in the same biology as the moth's attraction to light, worker bees' foreknowledge of their assignments, ants' knowledge of the mechanics to execute the architectural design of an ant hill, or a female cat's instinct to open the umbilical sack after giving birth. Author Alice Travis ponders, "If we begin with what we accept to be intelligent life, at what point does life become non-intelligent?" It was the recognition...

The Art of Examining and Interpreting Histologic Preparations

A Laboratory Manual and Study Guide for Histology

by William J. Krause, Ph.D.


The examination and interpretation of tissue sections seen under the light microscope in a laboratory setting is an example of student-directed, independent problem solving. The proper reading of a histologic section is an acquired art that can only be developed through practice, close observation and repetition. This laboratory manual was designed as a guide for students to aid them in this endeavor. The laboratory study guide/manual was designed to be used as a supplement to any current textbook and/or atlas of Histology. Learning objectives provide the overall goals for each chapter. The narrative of the study guide explains how to systematically breakdown, examine and interpret each tissue and/or organ encountered, without regard to a given histologic slide from a specific slide collec...

The Systemic Practice of Misinterpretation of Scientific Data

The Case of Persisters, Small Colony Variants, Viable but Non-Culturable Bacteria, and Senescent Bacteria in Microbiology

by Jaison Jacob


In this book, the author unfolds the ways in which researchers misinterpret their data to promote a hypothesis with the aim of attracting the attention of the scientific community. By providing examples, the author explains how flawed research findings enter and remain in scientific literature for a long time. This book gives insights not only to researchers in the sciences, but also to journal reviewers and to various governmental and private agencies that work to promote science. The message of the book is positive and clear: it is possible to identify the flaws in scientific research by scrutinizing the subject matter thoroughly, thus saving researchers around the globe time and money. It is generally believed that the scientific community is relatively free of corruption and that it...

Worldwide Research Efforts in the Fighting Against Microbial Pathogens

From Basic Research to Technological Developments

by A. Mendez-Vilas (editor)


This book aims to disseminate recent findings in the fight against microbial pathogens which were presented at the second edition of the ICAR Conference Series (ICAR2012) on Antimicrobial Research, held in Lisbon, Portugal, November 2012, which attracted about 425 scientists from 55 countries. This forum was the natural continuation of this new series of conferences: the first edition, held in Valladolid, Spain in 2010, gathered more than 500 researchers from nearly 60 countries. ICAR aims at establishing itself as a key forum in Europe for the presentation, exchange, and dissemination of information and experiences on anti-microbe strategies. "Anti" is here taken in the broadest sense as "against cell cycle, adhesion, or communication," when harmful for the human health, industry or econo...

by Raffaele Pilla


Growth Associated Protein 43 (GAP-43), isolated from rat brain and considered a neuronal marker, is involved in neurite branching, cytoskeleton remodelling, neuronal development and protection. However, GAP-43 mRNA was found in embryonic chicken cells positive to meromyosin, as well as in human satellite cells, myoblasts and myotubes deriving from healthy or dystrophic muscles. Despite these findings, there is no clear evidence about its localization or relationship with other muscle proteins. The aim of this study was to investigate GAP-43 protein expression and localization in C2C12 cells and mice skeletal muscle fibers, using immunoblot and immunofluorescence protocols for confocal mycroscopy. Immunoblot analyses show the presence of GAP-43 in C2C12 cell homogenates as well as in matu...

by Shivaditya Gautam


Septoria leaf blotch has been the major disease of wheat in Britain and much of the rest of Europe. It has been reported that the disease causes serious yield losses to range from 31 to 53%. Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph: Septoria tritici) is the pathogen which causes Septoria leaf blotch. The disease can be controlled by various methods such as cultural practices, chemical control, using resistant varieties and biological control. In plant pathology, the term biological control leads to the introduction of microbial antagonists or host specific pathogens to suppress diseases and populations of one or more plant pathogens. This study investigated the microbial community on and within wheat leaves which can suppress Septoria leaf blotch by reducing the inoculum level of the causative...

by Lekha Yadav


Fungal spoilage during the storage of fresh produce is a major concern in the food industry. Several methods have been used in order to improve and increase the shelf-life of food such as pesticide treatment, but the safety issues and concerns about these methods has been questioned due to their observed ill effects on consumer health and environment. Thus, it leads to emergence of a novel alternative residue free treatment. Ozone is known to be a powerful oxidising agent having the ability to break down into harmless oxygen and interestingly leaves no residue. The potential of ozone to reduce food spoilage organisms is well documented and the use of ozone against food spoilage has been approved by US-FDA. The impact of ozone exposure on macroscopic development and morphological characters...


A Potential Drug to Treat Biofilm Infections of Medical Devices Produced by Staphylococcus Epidermidis and Proteus Mirabilis

by Jithendra Gunawardana


Staphylococcus epidermidis is the leading cause of hospital-acquired infections associated with implanted medical devices. Likewise, Proteus mirabilis is one of the leading causes of nosocomial Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) and is associated with urinary catheter blockage. Both organisms produce biofilms, which make them less susceptible to antibiotics. Therefore, these infections are often notoriously difficult to treat and in many cases lead to complications. Preventing biofilm formation or killing a pre-existing biofilm would be useful solutions since biofilm formation is a phenomenon commonly observed in these organsims. This study investigated the in vitro efficacy of Bismuth-ethanedithiol (BisEDT) against biofilms produced by P. mirabilis and S. epidermidis. Anti-biofilm activit...

Farmers' Rural Community Attachment

A Structural Symbolic Interactionist Explanation

by Forrest L. Sanner


This research reconceptualizes or elaborates on, or even modifies, the systemic approach of community attachment by looking at its concepts from a structural symbolic interactionist approach. The systemic model conceptualizes community attachment as three forms of community solidarity--strong interpersonal relations among community residents, strong sentiments about the community, and involvement in community affairs. The structural symbolic interactionist approach assumes that farmers' role choices--involvement in community affairs--depends on their resident-identities. The nature of their resident-identities is dependent on how large their social networks are and on the character of those relations. For instance, if their resident-identities were limited to fam...

by Benoît Schoefs


This thesis is divided into 4 chapters summarizing this contribution on selected topics related to chlorophyll biosynthesis and biogenesis of the photosynthetic apparatus. The first chapter deals with the state of Pchlide in nonilluminated leaves. The comparison of the photoactive Pchlide absorbance spectra throughout the development in the dark, reveals that the proportion of P638-645 and P650-657 is not much modified during this period. The Gaussian deconvolutions of 77 K fluorescence spectra of nonphotoactive and photoactive Pchlide indicated the presence of three and 5 spectral forms, respectively. None of the nonphotoactive Pchlide forms is accumulated during the dark-growth. In constrast, photoactive Pchlide P650-657 is particularly accumulated. In the second chapter, we describe t...

by Glenn E. McGee


William James and John Dewey insisted that pragmatic philosophy finds meaning in its struggle to deal with emergent social problems. Ironically, few have attempted to use pragmatism to articulate methods for ameliorating social difficulties. This dissertation attempts to do just that by putting James' and Dewey's philosophy to work on the moral and scientific problems associated with genetic engineering and the Human Genome Project. The intention is to demonstrate the usefulness of a pragmatic approach to applied ethics and philosophy of biology. The work of proponents and critics of genetic engineering is examined, including LeRoy Hood, Hans Jonas, Leon Kass, Robert Nozick, Jeremy Rifkin, Robyn Rowland, and Paul Ramsey. It is concluded that excessive optimism and pessimism about gene...

Genes, Polymorphisms and the Making of Societies

How Genetic Behavioral Traits Influence Human Cultures

by Hippokratis Kiaris


Our genes determine to a large extent who we are as individuals and why we are different from the other human beings. In this book, Hippokratis Kiaris explores how various genetic polymorphisms in different ethnic populations may affect the development of distinct cultures and eventually historical decisions. It should be read by anybody interested in history, anthropology, behavior, psychology or genetics. The reader will find clues linking together these scientific disciplines and how such genetically determined behavioral traits may play an undervalued, as yet, role in shaping historical outcomes. The book initially describes some basic concepts on genetics and proceeds with an outline of human evolution, the journey of early humans Out-of-Africa, and the colonization of Earth by dif...

by A. Mendez-Vilas (editor)


Multidisciplinary Approaches for Studying and Combating Microbial Pathogens offers the opportunity to learn about recent findings in the fight against microbial pathogens. This book contains a compilation of papers presented at the III International Conference on Antimicrobial Research (ICAR2014), held in Madrid, Spain, in October 2014. The papers are written by researchers from around the world and focus on several themes: antimicrobial natural products, biofilms, antimicrobial surfaces, antimicrobial resistance, clinical and medical microbiology. Readers will hopefully find this set of papers interesting and representative of the worldwide current knowledge on antimicrobial research.

by Nicolas Carels


Les relations gënomiques dëgagëes dans ce travail font apparaÓtre que l'anctre commun des graminëes a subi une transition de la composition en bases qui se traduit par l'augmentation en GC dans tous les consitutants gëniques et gënomiques. Par opposition, cette transition n'a pas eu lieu dans la plupart des autres Monocots et Dicots. La transition compositionnelle renforce l'ëvidence de l'existence de deux classes de gnes chez les Angiospermes : les gnes pauvres et riches en GC. Les premiers sont caractërisës par la prësence d'introns en plus grand nombre et de plus grande longueur que les derniers. Par ailleurs, les deux classes de gnes chez les graminëes ont, sur base de l'ëtude des substitutions synonymes, des taux d'ëvolution diffërents et sont associëes  des plans...

Science, God and the Nature of Reality

Bias in Biomedical Research

by Sarah S. Knox


This philosophy of science book is written by a biomedical scientist for a lay audience but is well-referenced for use by scientific readers and college course curricula. Its thesis is that the current paradigm in the biological and medical sciences, which is responsible for rejecting the existence of a Divine Being, is outdated. There is no factual basis for creating a dichotomy between evolution and Divine Design. Misconceptions about the nature of reality, i.e., the belief that matter is the ultimate cause of everything we think, feel, say, and do, have made it easy to ignore data demonstrating an important biological role for the energetic aspects of matter and to leave the question of the existence of a Divine being to the purview of philosophy and religion. The author uses extensive ...

by Halgoord Nasraden Hassan


Centella asiatica L. Urban (Umbelliferea) locally known as ‘Pegaga’ is a type of herbal plant that had been used in traditional medicine in Asia for many centuries. This species has high medicinal value derived from the phenolic and flavonoid compounds. This research was conducted to understand the physiological and antioxidant properties of Centella asiatica L. Urban in response to different phosphate concentrations. Experiment was arranged in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) consisted of five treatments with three replications. The treatments was 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 g of Phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5 )/kg. The results of physical characteristics of Centella asiatica showed that P2O5 fertilizer significantly increased the fresh and dry weight of plants at p <0.05. The h...

by Carl Hans Norgauer


The transition from locally-produced, whole foods to distant-produced, fractioned foods marks food consumption patterns in the United States and other developed nations. Chief risk factors for prostate cancer - milk, meat and vegetable oils – were examined to determine how modern processing of these foods has impacted the incidence of prostate cancer. Food consumption patterns in six nations with consistently low prostate cancer mortality were compared with seven nations with consistently high cancer mortality. Several of the low prostate cancer mortality nations included in this study have primitive food processing technology while all the high prostate cancer mortality nations have advanced refining and food fractionating technology. World Health Organization (WHO) mortality da...

by Denise Ingebo-Barth


The Conscious Stream describes a theory built on the idea that consciousness--a stream of separate conscious instants, like frames making up a reel of film--is formed as trajectories circulate around the nervous system circuitry. In this model, a trajectory is a series of neuron groups energized in turn. (Picture it as a sequence of lights flashing around a marquee or perhaps as a comet blazing through a linked series of packed neuron groups--through circuits of the nervous system.) When a trajectory passes through the thalamus--a central area of the brain--an instant of experience is inserted into our lifelong conscious stream. This instant of experience can be a sensation, thought, or feeling. The particular instant depends on the source of the trajectory. When a trajectory is initiated ...

by Dr. Maika Graceina Mitchell


The Pax gene family appears to have evolved by a combination of gene duplication and / or genome duplication events over a long period of evolutionary time. The highly conserved paired box sequence within the Pax genes encodes a paired DNA binding domain, indicating that the Pax proteins are transcription factors which bind and regulate downstream target genes. Nine Pax genes (Pax1 - Pax9) listed in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database, contain this motif. Some members of the Pax family, which includes Pax3 and Pax7, encode a second DNA binding domain of the paired-type homeodomain (HD) class. Pax3 and Pax7 are closely related paired box family members specifically expressed in the dorsal neural tube and the developing somites and in proliferating and migratin...