Understanding Radiation Science

Basic Nuclear and Health Physics

by James Mannie Shuler


The purpose of Understanding Radiation Science: Basic Nuclear and Health Physics is to provide the reader a basic understanding of radiation science. Therefore, basic nuclear physics and health physics principles are presented through chapters on atomic structure, types of radiation, terminology and units, radiation biology, exposure and controls, background radiation, personnel monitoring, and radiation instrumentation. The book concludes with chapters on historical events and definitions. This book provides introductory information for students starting their education in nuclear physics, health physics and nuclear engineering. The material covered in this book is appropriate for all types of radiation workers. Persons studying to take the health physics certification exam, radiation pr...

by Joshua S. Bloom


The various possibilities for the origin ("progenitors") of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) manifest in differing observable properties. Through deep spectroscopic and high-resolution imaging observations of some GRB hosts, I demonstrate that well-localized long-duration GRBs are connected with otherwise normal star-forming galaxies at moderate redshifts of order unity. Using high-mass binary stellar population synthesis models, I quantify the expected spatial extent around galaxies of coalescing neutron stars, one of the leading contenders for GRB progenitors. I then test this scenario by examining the offset distribution of GRBs about their apparent hosts making extensive use of ground-based optical data from Keck and Palomar and space-based imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope. Th...


Principes et Applications

by Pierre Infelta and Michael Graetzel


Notre présentation classique de la thermodynamique, avec quelques illustrations de l’aspect statistique, ne requiert que peu de connaissances mathématiques. L’existence et la définition de la température thermodynamique permettent de définir l’entropie d’un système, de montrer qu’elle est une fonction d’état, puis, d’énoncer le deuxième principe de la thermodynamique. Les diverses fonctions thermodynamiques s’imposent naturellement avec leurs significations. On découvre que les propriétés extensives des systèmes réels peuvent être obtenues à l’aide des grandeurs molaires partielles dont fait partie le potentiel chimique. L’étude des gaz parfaits permet d’obtenir une expression formelle de leur potentiel chimique puis, pour les gaz réels, de dé...

by Antonius Indarto


Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot share the same origin (incomplete combustion or pyrolysis) and nature, namely structural and electronic features. The purpose of the research work discussed in this thesis is to offer a theoretical contribution to elucidate some aspects of PAH and soot particle formation. The interest in carrying out such a work lies on one hand in the ubiquitous presence of both species in the environment, on the other hand on the concern for their impact on both human health, specifically involving the respiratory system, and climate, in particular as regards global warming. Thus, a better knowledge on the formation mechanisms of PAHs and soot could then help the efforts to reduce their concentration in our atmosphere. Since the formation mechanisms still...

The Wayward Comet

A Descriptive History of Cometary Orbits, Kepler's Problem and the Cometarium

by Martin Beech


Comets have not only blazed across the celestial vault throughout human history, they have embellished the night sky since the Earth itself formed some 4.5 billion years ago. Comets were among the first-born solid bodies in the solar system, and their frozen nuclei tell of the primordial chemistry and chaos that ultimately resulted in the formation of the planets, the evolution of life and us. For all this, however, comets have long been celestial oddities: they baffled our distant ancestors, and human society continues to marvel and speculate wildly at their appearance even to the present day. Cutting against the perceived constancy of the stars, comets seemingly present themselves at random times and they are often interpreted as harbingers of terrestrial change - both good and ill. How ...

The Properties of Star-Forming Galaxies at z~2

Kinematics, Stellar Populations, and Metallicities

by Dawn K. Erb


We study the properties of star-forming galaxies at redshift z~2, an era in which a substantial fraction of the stellar mass in the universe formed. Using 114 near-IR spectra of the H-alpha and [N II] emission lines and model spectral energy distributions fit to rest-frame UV through IR photometry, we examine the galaxies' star formation properties, dynamical masses and velocity dispersions, spatially resolved kinematics, outflow properties, and metallicities as a function of stellar mass and age. While the stellar masses of the galaxies in our sample vary by a factor of ~500, dynamical masses from H-alpha velocity dispersions and indirect estimates of gas masses imply that the variation of stellar mass is due as much to the evolution of the stellar population and the conversi...

The Pendulum Paradigm

Variations on a Theme and the Measure of Heaven and Earth

by Martin Beech


The pendulum is perhaps the simplest experimental devices ever constructed, and yet for all its simplicity it has historically enabled scientists to both investigate and enumerate gravity; the fundamental force that shapes the very universe. The pendulum has also allowed astronomers and geologists to measure the motion, mass and distribution of matter within the Earth, and its stately swing is at the very heartbeat of time. This book explores the many applications of the pendulum, from its employment as a fundamental experimental device, such as in the Cavendish torsion balance for measuring the universal gravitational constant, to its everyday, practical use in geology, astronomy and horology.

by Duncan Taylor


The environmental reports of 12 Scottish Strategic Environmental Assessments have been subject to critical analysis in order to assess the extent to which they include Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) as a required component under the SEA directive. The anticipated benefits of assessing Cumulative Effects in a strategic setting are wide-ranging and well researched, yet there appears little documented evidence of this in the Scottish context. The level of Cumulative Effects inclusion in the reports studied was investigated, along with the parameters that appear to limit the success of the lauded relationship between these environmental assessment tools. An 8 criteria review-based methodology was constructed, based on a best-practice framework from the extensive literature synthesis pr...

by Alicia Margarita Soderberg


Over the past few years, long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), including the subclass of X-ray flashes (XRFs), have been revealed to be a rare variety of Type Ibc supernova (SN Ibc). While all these events result from the death of massive stars, the electromagnetic luminosities of GRBs and XRFs exceed those of ordinary Type Ibc SNe by many orders of magnitude. The observed diversity of stellar death corresponds to large variations in the energy, velocity, and geometry of the explosion ejecta. Using multi-wavelength (radio, optical, X-ray) observations of the nearest GRBs, XRFs, and SNe Ibc, I show that GRBs and XRFs couple at least 1048 erg to relativistic material while SNe Ibc typically couple less than 1048 erg to their fastest (albeit non-relativistic) outflows. Specifi...

by Kurt A. Richardson


The phenomena of superconductivity has enormous industrial potential, but the penetration of superconductor-based products has, thus far, been slow. An indisputable fact is that there are prizes, and profits, for the teams that solve the critical problems in understanding and processing these complex materials. The continuous processing of superconducting tapes and wires is a necessary stage that will open up the industrial market to the designers of a diverse range of time and energy saving devices, particularly in ultra-fast computing and lossless power transmission. The aim of the research reported herein was to investigate the fabrication of superconducting tapes and films via two different processes, namely: the established PIT technique, and a less well known electrochemical route...

The Fourth Source

Effects of Natural Nuclear Reactors

by Robert J. Tuttle


This book describes how the effects of nature's own nuclear reactors have shaped the Earth, the Solar System, the Universe, and the history of life as we know it. It focuses on observed effects that are poorly explained by our standard theories, identifies certain errors in those theories, and shows how these effects are caused by natural nuclear fission reactors. The theory of Plate Tectonics is wrong, and it is shown that expansion of the Earth causes continental drift. A physically reasonable mechanism is proposed for expansion and observational data are presented to show that this occurs. Evolution is explained as punctuated equilibrium, with mutations caused by abrupt surges of radiation, and related life forms that have been interpreted as seperate species are actually the result of ...

The Foundations of Real Analysis

A Fundamental Course with 347 Exercises and Detailed Solutions

by Richard Mikula


This textbook covers the subject of real analysis from the fundamentals up through beginning graduate level. It is appropriate as an introductory course text or a review text for graduate qualifying examinations. Some special features of the text include a thorough discussion of transcendental functions such as trigonometric, logarithmic, and exponential from power series expansions, deducing all important functional properties from the series definitions. The text is written in a user-friendly manner, and includes full solutions to all assigned exercises throughout the text.

The Final Theory

Rethinking Our Scientific Legacy (Second Edition)

by Mark McCutcheon


Our search for ultimate understanding --- the Theory of Everything -- has long been the quest of such great scientists as Aristotle, Newton, Einstein, Hawking and many others, and is expected to transform science, providing clarity and understanding that is unknown today, ideally via one single overlooked principle in nature. So far, this quest has produced theories such as Special Relativity, General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics, and such recent proposals as "Dark Matter" and "Dark Energy" in cosmology. Yet these all suffer serious internal problems and compatibility issues with each other, introducing even more questions, mysteries and paradoxes -- and often even violations of our laws of physics upon closer examination. As a result, the Theory of Everything cont...

The Diversity of Neutron Stars

Nearby Thermally Emitting Neutron Stars and the Compact Central Objects in Supernova Remnants

by David L. Kaplan


Neutron stars are invaluable tools for exploring stellar death, the physics of ultra-dense matter, and the effects of extremely strong magnetic fields. The observed population of neutron stars is dominated by the >1000 radio pulsars, but there are distinct sub-populations that, while fewer in number, can have significant impact on our understanding of the issues mentioned above. These populations are the nearby, isolated neutron stars discovered by ROSAT, and the central compact objects in supernova remnants. The studies of both of these populations have been greatly accelerated in recent years through observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton telescope. First, we discuss radio, optical, and X-ray observations of the nearby neutron stars ...

by Kevin Marvel


The dissertation presents the results of a multi-epoch very long baseline interferometric study of water masers located in the extended atmospheres of evolved stars. The research was performed using the Very Long Baseline Array and Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Optical monitoring of the stars was provided by the American Association of Variable Star Observers, the Variable Star Network and Dr. Bill Neely of the NF/Observatory. Water masers of found to exist in a region where a population inversion of the rotation transition of 22 GHz can be maintained by collisional pumping. The masers are identified as individual pockets of gas, which have the good velocity coherence and may be imaged using radio interferometry. Stellar winds are initiated in these sources...

by Rahul I. Patel


Debris disks are optically thin circumstellar disks around mainsequence stars, comprised of micron-sized grains. The dust is generated from destructive collisions of planetesimals, induced from gravitational perturbations by large planets. Debris disks can as signposts for planetary systems, through which, a universal picture can be obtained that encompasses the evolution and architecture of the Solar System’s own dust disk and planetary system. The dust in these disks can be detected by their thermal infrared flux, measured as an excess above the photospheric emission. Dust at different circumstellar locations, inferred from the peak wavelength of the detected emission, can act as a probe for local dynamical activity in the system. Over the last thirty years, cold disks, analogous to th...

by Pierre Infelta & Michael Graetzel


In this volume (volume 1), the tools necessary to study and understand systems in which chemical reactions can take place are developed. The variables of reaction are the keys to this understanding. Criteria for chemical equilibrium are established. It is shown how chemical reactions can provide work as, for example, in batteries. For complex systems, the number of independent reactions and their nature have to be determined systematically. The effect of external factors on chemical equilibria is analyzed and illustrated. The formalism necessary to study ideal and real solutions is provided. The various standard states in use and the corresponding activity coefficients are clearly defined. In volume 2, the tools necessary to study and understand systems in which chemical reactions can t...

by Michael Graetzel & Pierre Infelta


In this volume, the tools necessary to study and understand systems in which chemical reactions can take place are developed. The variables of reaction are the keys to this understanding. Criteria for chemical equilibrium are established. It is shown how chemical reactions can provide work as, for example, in batteries. For complex systems, the number of independent reactions and their nature have to be determined systematically. The effect of external factors on chemical equilibria is analyzed and illustrated. The formalism necessary to study ideal and real solutions is provided. The various standard states in use and the corresponding activity coefficients are clearly defined. The statistical aspect of thermodynamics is best understood once students are familiar with the rest of the boo...

Super Edge-Antimagic Graphs

A Wealth of Problems and Some Solutions

by Martin Baca and Mirka Miller


Graph theory, and graph labeling in particular, are fast-growing research areas in mathematics. New results are constantly being discovered and published at a rapidly increasing rate due to the enormous number of open problems and conjectures in the field. This book deals mainly with the super edge-antimagic branch of graph labeling. It is written for specialists, but could be read also by postgraduate or undergraduate students with high school knowledge of mathematics and a vibrant interest in problem-solving.

by Ugochukwu Princewill Iheanacho


Exploratory activities carried out in the Anambra Basin have revealed that the basin has the potential of generating hydrocarbon. Subsurface core samples obtained from Enugu 1325 and 1331 wells within the Anambra Basin were utilized in this study with the aims of characterizing the organic matter as well as determining the maturity in order to deduce the hydrocarbon potential of the basin. The study was also aimed at determining the palaeo-depositional environment as well as highlighting the source input of the organic matter. The analytical procedure for total organic matter and rock eval pyrolysis was achieved by the use of LECO 600 analyzer. Soluble organic matter (SOM) was determined by the use of Soxhlet Extractor while whole rock analysis and biomarker distributions were determin...

by Kehinde Oluwatoyin Olowoyo


The Niger Delta is a prolific oil province within the West African subcontinent. Exploration activities have been concentrated in the onshore part of this basin, but as the delta becomes better understood, exploration influences are gradually being shifted to the offshore. Although the geology, tectonics and evolution of the Eocene-Pliocene sequence of the Niger Delta are fairly well known, these are expected to increase as new analytical tools and concepts evolve. This work was an integrated structural, seismic facies and stratigraphic study conducted in the Fabi Field, onshore western Niger Delta, and targeted at improving the present understanding of the structural development, sequence stratigraphic history, paleo-depositional environments and hydrocarbon reservoir potential of the fie...

Starlight, Starbright

Are Stars Conscious?

by Greg Matloff and C Bangs


The only thing we can be absolutely sure of is our own consciousness. But what is consciousness? Is it a property that is unique to humans or do we share it with other life forms? Or is the philosophical doctrine of panpsychism correct--are stars and the entire Universe conscious in some sense? Early chapters in this book examine the prehistory, mythology, and history of this topic. Arguments are presented from the viewpoints of shamans, philosophers, poets, quantum physicists, and novelists. A simple "toy" model of panpsychism is then presented, in which a universal field of proto-consciousness interacts with molecular bonds via the vacuum fluctuation pressure of the Casimir effect. It is shown how this model is in congruence with an anomaly in stellar motions called "Parenago's discontin...

Some Recent Developments in Statistical Theory and Applications

Selected Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Developments in Statistics, Econometrics and Forecasting, University of Allahabad, India, December 27-28, 2010

by Kuldeep Kumar & Anoop Chaturvedi (editors)


This book is part of the proceedings of The International Conference on Recent Developments in Statistics, Econometrics and Forecasting 2010, which was organized to provide opportunities for academics and researchers to share their knowledge on recent developments in this area. The conference featured the most up-to-date research results and applications in statistics, econometrics and forecasting. The book has fifteen chapters contributed by different authors and can be divided into five parts: Time Series and Econometric Modelling, Linear Models, Non-parametrics, Statistical Applications and Statistical Methodology. This book will be helpful to graduate students, researchers and applied statisticians working in the area of time series, statistical and econometric modelling.

by Silva Jorg


In this work we explore the relation between some local Dirichlet spaces and some operator ranges. As an application we give numerical bounds for an equivalence of norms on a particular subspace of the Hardy space.Based on these results we introduce an operator on H^2 which we study in some detail. We also introduce a Hilbert space of analytic functions on the unit disc, prove the polynomials are dense in it, and give a characterization of its elements. On these spaces we study the action of composition operators induced by holomorphic self maps of the disc. We give characterizations of the bounded and compact ones in terms of the behavior of the inducing maps.

by Silva Jorg


Combinatorial Games are a generalization of real numbers. Each game has a recursively defined complexity (birthday). In this paper we establish some game bounds. We find some limit cases for how big and how small a game can be, based on its complexity. For each finite birthday, N, we find the smallest positive number and the greatest game born by day N, as well as the smallest and the largest positive infinitesimals. As for each particular birthday we provide the extreme values for those types of games, these results extend those in [1, page 214]. The main references in the theory of combinatorial games are ONAG [1] and WW [2]. We'll use the notation and some fundamental results from WW---mainly from its first six chapters---to establish some bounds to the size of the games.

Soaring on the Wings of Genius

A Chronicle of Modern Physics, Book 3

by Dr. Andrew Worsley


Is there a unifying solution to myriad physical laws of Nature that govern the Universe? String theory represents the closest yet to such a unifying solution. However, after 20 years string theory has been unable to predict the physical constants of Nature and still has not provided the answer to quantum gravity. Recent strong evidence for the presence of a newly discovered energy, which affects the entire Universe may be the first clue to an as yet unlocked scientific paradigm. Dr Worsley argues forcibly that the answer to this paradigm opens a new window on the truly unified nature of the Universe. The arguments presented are clear concise and compelling.

by Michael W. Busch


Asteroids are diverse and numerous solar system objects, from the large number of objects in the main asteroid belt to the relatively small near-Earth population. Understanding their physical properties is essential to understanding the evolution of the solar system, and asteroid morphology is a complex field in its own right. The histories of individual asteroids, and particularly near-Earth objects, reflect continuous interaction among their shapes, rotation states, and orbits due to the effects of radiation pressure. Radar astronomy has provided detailed information on the orbits, sizes, shapes, rotation states, and composition of many asteroids. To improve the capabilities of asteroid radar observations, I have developed the technique of radar speckle tracking. The echoes from diffe...

Seismic Methods and Applications

A Guide for the Detection of Geologic Structures, Earthquake Zones and Hazards, Resource Exploration, and Geotechnical Engineering

by Andreas Stark


This book has been written for those who need a solid understanding of the seismic exploration method without difficult mathematics. It is presented in a format that allows one to naturally progress from the underlying physical principles to the actual seismic method. The mathematics needed for the subject is kept as simple as possible; students only need high school physics and mathematics to thoroughly grasp the principles covered. Dr. Stark has developed this text and honed its content with feedback from hundreds of students over nearly two decades of teaching seismic exploration geophysics. This textbook will teach students the principles for the detection of geologic structures, earthquake zones and hazards, resource exploration, and geotechnical engineering.This title is Winner of 20...

by Bryan Anthony Jacoby


We present the results of a large-area survey for millisecond pulsars (MSPs) at moderately high galactic latitudes with the 64 m Parkes radio telescope, along with follow-up timing and optical studies of the newly-discovered pulsars and several others. Major results include the first precise measurement of the mass of a fully recycled pulsar and measurement of orbital period decay in a double neutron star binary system allowing a test of general relativity along with improved measurements of the neutron star masses. In a survey of approx. 4,150 square degrees, we discovered 26 previously unknown pulsars, including 7 "recycled" millisecond or binary pulsars. Several of these recycled pulsars are particularly interesting: PSR J1528-3146 is in a circular orbit with a companion of at least 0....

Reassessing the Fundamentals

On the Evolution, Ages and Masses of Neutron Stars

by Bülent Kiziltan


The evolution, ages and masses of neutron stars are the fundamental threads that make pulsars accessible to other sub-disciplines of astronomy and physics. A realistic and accurate determination of these indirectly probed features play an important role in understanding a very broad range of astrophysical processes that are, in many cases, not empirically accessible otherwise. For the majority of pulsars, the only observables are the rotational period, and its derivative which gives the rate of change in the spin. I start with calculating the joint P-Pdot distributions of millisecond pulsars for the standard evolutionary model in order to assess whether millisecond pulsars are the unequivocal descendants of low mass X-ray binaries. We show that the P-Pdot density implied by the standard...