PaleoAmerican Archaeology in Virginia
This book is a full-color study of over 500 pre-Clovis stone artifacts of Virginia. With the 22K-year date of the Cinmar bipoint in Virginia, there is ample evidence of artifact classes that are older than Clovis. Over 50 tool types are illustrated and discussed. Artifact single-site collections are documented. The book argues the differences between Holocene biface technology with the blade and core technology of the Pleistocene era. The requirements for identifying Pleistocene artifacts is presented, such as platforms, remaining cortex, and invasive retouch. They are presented in a tool model. Major stones, namely jasper, are discussed as a lithic determinism. The east coast distribution is presented for various tool types. Additionally, as a major focus, cross-Atlantic flake/blade identical tools from Europe are illustrated with Middle Atlantic artifacts. Artifact ergonomics, such as right-left handed tools, hypothetical tool center, are argued. Structural and functional axis are shown and described on how to identify them on tools. Overall, this book presents an initiating view of the archaeology needed to study Pleistocene era artifacts on the American east coast.
About the Author
Wm Jack Hranicky is a retired U.S. Government contractor, but has been involved with archaeology as a full-time passion for over 40 years. His main interest is the Paleo-Indian period; however, he has worked in all facets of American archaeology. He has published over 200 papers and over 40 books in archaeology with one being a two-volume, 800-page, 10,000 artifacts book on the material culture of Virginia. In Virginia, he is considered an expert on prehistoric stone tools and rockart.